Satellite view of Newport Center, with Fashion Island in the middle of the image
Opened in 1967 as part of Newport Center, the mall featured four department stores: Buffum's, J. W. Robinson's, The Broadway, and J.C. Penney. These four initial buildings were designed by architects William Pereira and Welton Becket, and were flanked by several smaller stores. The Spanish architectural theme which would later define the mall was evident in the Robinson's building. In the late 1970s, Bullocks Wilshire (which later became I. Magnin) and Neiman Marcus were added. In the early 1980s, J.C. Penney moved out, and the building it occupied was reconstructed and reopened as "Atrium Court", which contained numerous smaller shops and a food court on the lower level.
Renovation work taking place at Fashion Island
The southwest entrance to Robinson's features a bronze wind-chime sculpture by mural artist Tom Van Sant, installed in September 1967, that was recorded by the Guinness Book of Records as the world's largest wind chime. (Possibly supplanted by Eureka Springs, Ark. in 2007.)
In 1988, the center underwent a major expansion and renovation based on the design of Jon Jerde, adding the Island Terrace Food Court, an eight-screen movie theater, and three new avenues of shops, all of which converge in a circular courtyard with an animated fountain that shoots jets of water up to 30feet (9.1m) high. This fountain is known as the "Iris Fountain" because of the radial-leaves pattern of its marble lining coupled with the jets of water that suggests the iris plant.
In 1990, the Bullocks Wilshire store became an I. Magnin. Federated Department Stores, which owned I. Magnin closed the chain in the mid 1990s, and the store was replaced with a Bullock's Women's Store. When Federated shuttered the Bullock's chain, the store was replaced again by Macy's as a Macy's Women's Store. Buffum's closed in 1991, and its space was later subdivided into smaller stores. After the consolidation of J. W. Robinson's and May Company California, the Robinson's store became a Robinsons-May in 1993. The Broadway, whose parent company had been purchased by Federated was done away with in 1996, and was replaced by one of the first Bloomingdale's stores on the West Coast.
In the early 2000s the mall underwent additional minor renovations resulting in the alteration and replacement of landscape elements, building facades, outdoor furniture ,and floor materials to better reflect the Mediterranean theme. Included in this renovation was the installment of a carousel and a new wing with restaurants and shops, although the carousel was removed in January 2010 as part of major renovations of the center.
The Federated-May merger in 2006, greatly affected Fashion Island, resulting in the closure and demolition of the 80,000square feet (7,400m2) Macy's Women's Store and conversion of the former Robinsons-May into a full-line Macy's store.
Dean & DeLuca announced that it would be opening a new West Coast flagship store at Fashion Island in fall 2009. Those plans were later canceled.
On January 29, 2008, Nordstrom announced that it had signed a letter of intent to open a 138,000sqft (12,800m2) store in 2010 in the former Macy's Women's Store location.
In 2009 the Irvine Company began a 0 million renovation of the mall and is changing the Spanish style to an Italian style. The work will last through fall 2011.
Bloomingdale's 187,534sqft (17,422.5m2)
Bloomingdale's Home Store 62,000sqft (5,800m2)
Macy's 224,219sqft (20,830.6m2)
Neiman Marcus 153,000sqft (14,200m2)
Nordstrom 138,000sqft (12,800m2) Opening Spring 2010
The large courtyard outside the Bloomingdale's building is occupied annually by a large Christmas tree. About a week before Christmas, every year, the tree is lit, preceded by extravagant holiday performances. The trees are taken from a private timber area near Mount Shasta, and shipped to Fashion Island in several pieces, which are then re-assembled using steel rods and a large crane.
Since 1983, the tree at Fashion Island has generally been the nations tallest. The M Resort held this distinction for 2009.
^ Liddane, Lisa (November 12, 2009). "Fashion Island on schedule to remove carousel". The Orange County Register. http://retail.freedomblogging.com/2009/11/12/fashion-island-on-schedule-to-remove-carousel/15249/. Retrieved November 15, 2009.
^ "Fashion Island Shuts Down Carousel". Corona Del Mar Today. January 4, 2010. http://www.coronadelmartoday.com/home/fashion-island-shuts-down-carousel/. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
^ "Which retailer cancelled its Fashion Island store?". The Orange County Register. December 24th, 2009. http://retail.freedomblogging.com/2009/12/24/which-retailer-cancelled-its-fashion-island-store/16527/. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
^ Irvine Company (January 27, 2008). "Nordstrom To Open At Fashion Island". Press release. http://www.irvinecompany.com/press-room/press-release.aspx?id=1196. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
^ Collins, Jeff (June 26, 2009). "Fashion Island's pricey face-lift". The Orange County Register: p.Business 1. http://www.ocregister.com/articles/new-31750-ocprint-mall-features.html.
^ Irvine Company (June 25, 2009). "Fashion Island Announces A Bold New Look". Press release. http://www.irvinecompany.com/press-room/press-release.aspx?id=1937.
^ Jeff Overley (2009-12-10). "O.C. no longer home to tallest Christmas tree". The Orange County Register. http://www.ocregister.com/news/tree-223481-christmas-feet.html. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
^ "Nation's Tallest Christmas Tree at M Resort". KLAS-TV. 2009-12-11. http://www.lasvegasnow.com/Global/story.asp?S=11662986. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
Categories: Newport Beach, California | Shopping malls in California | Buildings and structures in Orange County, California | William Pereira buildingsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009
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History has always been my favorite subject in school and so were my history teachers. I had made it a point to gather in and out knowledge about the subject. In fact, back in my high school, I had joined Arts stream because I wanted to go deeper in History and wanted to carry my further studies in the same subject. I’m not underestimating any other subject but there is a lot to know in history. One can go as far as possible in the subject. Finally, I accomplished my aim to study the subject from its core and I got to know many interesting facts. A few of them are as follows:
History is the study of past. The subject consists of topics related to collection, discovery and presentation of facts about the past events. The scholars who study about past and write about them are called historians. Events that occurred in the past but before it were written are called prehistory.
Among the famous historians of the world are Sima Qian from China, Saint Augustine, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel from Greece, Ibn Khaldun from Arab, Lawrence Stone, Robert Fogel, etc. History has been tried to dragged into social sciences by many scholars but after many arguments by Donald Creighton, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Gerhard Ritter, John Lukas and Gertrude it has been decided that history is arts. The concept of quantitative history was introduced by French historians by associating Annales School. They were prominent in the founding of cultural history by using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals. Herbert Butterfield, George Mosse and Ernst Nolte are considered to be the intellectual historians who have argued for the importance of ideas in history. Scholars like Detlev Peukert, Ian Kershaw and Martin Broszat studied and found out how the ordinary people of the 20th century, especially of the Nazi period used to spend their everyday life. Even Karl Marx’s theories have been authenticated by examining the history from a Marxist angle by Marxist historians like C. L. R. James, E. P. Thompson, Eugene D. Genovese, Arno J. Mayer, Rodney Hilton, etc. Though, anti-Marxist explanation of history has also been done by scholars like Roland Mousnier, François Furet, J. C. D. Clark, Robert Conquest, etc. Even feminist historians did not stay behind. They argued about importance of studying about the women and their struggle in the history. Some of the feminist historians are Natalie Zemon Davis, Claudia Koonz, Gerda Lerner, Sheila Rowbotham, Lynn Hunt, Gisela Bock and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese.
History can be further sub-divided into Military history, History of religion, Social history, Cultural history, Diplomatic history, Economic history, Environmental history, World history, People's history, Historiometry, Gender history, Public history, Pseudo history, etc.
The subject has always been given importance and is still given equal importance as other subjects. A student of Arts stream has to opt for the subject as it is one of the compulsory subjects of the stream. The subject is compulsory for all the students of primary and secondary level in schools.
Fashion is most often mistaken to just be made up by the style of clothes you wear or the accessories you choose to add to your outfits. Fashion can also be mistaken as being trendy and having a hot hair styles. While these can be an accurate description about fashion it doesn't give the full understanding of what fashion completely encompasses. Fashion is all about the appearance and message that you proclaim from the clothes, accessories, hair style and trendy clothes you wear.
The Indian (Asian) culture promotes the wearing of a dot on women's foreheads which is called the 'bindi'. This is very similar to the same kind of body painting that is prevalent in other countries like Egypt; which they use a thing called kohl to make their eyes look more attractive. While these two forms of body art are cultural expressions of beauty there has been another form of body art which is gaining popularity to do the same in which the kohl and bindi do: tattoos
The use of tattoo has been around for many, many years, some would say almost since the existence of mankind have people been tattooing themselves or branding their livestock or slaves.Tattoos have been found in the tombs of the Egyptian princes' and also among some of the mummies of young girls. Archeologists have found these accounts but still deduct that the origin of the tattoo actually originated more in the European continent.
Egyptians have used the tattoo as a tool to identify the individual's religion or tribe. The Romans and the Greeks, tattooed themselves as slaves and this served as a form of punishment to them. Hindus (an Indian religion) used a temporary tattoo called 'henna' to celebrate marriages and also other occasions.This practice of using Henna is also popular in the middle-eastern countries. Such practices are still prevalent in many parts of the world in either prominent or subtle way.
The tattoo has become more fashionable and is something that can help you to present a beautiful appearance and also give direct message to other about who you are and what you are all about. The rich history that tattoo have make it even one of the best ways you can be fashionable in todays culture.
In 1492 Christopher Columbus wrote about Haiti: "The most beautiful in the world". Certainly, Haiti is a wonderful country in the Caribbean. I think that has a special beauty, with a geography and traditional culture that is totally different from all the other countries in Latin America.
Since then, the dictatorships have destroyed Haitian society, economy, ecology and sport. Since 1950, two million Haitian people emigrated to the United States and other countries. Haitian-American arrived from Haiti with nothing more than their clothes. If we compare the Haiti of today to Haiti of thirty years ago, we see a change: a new multiparty democracy. Today, a vast part of the Third World and more than a billion people are under dictatorships.
Eventually, I would like to finish my introduction with a message by Albert Mangones: "Haiti is unique in history, going directly from slavery to nationhood".
1492: Columbus discovered Haiti in the 15th Century.
1520-1697: Haiti is a Spanish territory.In the late 1500 and early 1600, African slaves flocked to Island.
1697-1790: Haiti is a French colony. After 16th Century, Haiti became the most important French colony in the Americas. Island´s export to Europe included sugar, coffee and corn. The beauty of Haiti is recognized by the French in the mid-1700 Century, when they called it "Pearl the Caribbean".
1790-1803: During the French colonization slaves suffers from maltreatment. By the late 1790, pro-independence demonstrations. An Anti-slavery movement under Toussaint L´Ouverture began. L´Ouverture is one of the most important black leaders in the history.During this period of time, Haitian slaves attack villages. Anti-French protests riots brutally suppressed. By the late 1803, under leadership of Jean Jacques Dessalines, Haiti army defeated the French forces at the Battle of Vertieres.
1804-1806:A French colony for more than hundred years, Haiti becomes independent, one of the most important events in the history. Jean Jacques Dessalines became the first president of new republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the modern history. Dessalines is the "Father of Modern Haiti". Haiti occupies the Western third of Hispaniola, the second-largest Island in the Caribbean.
1804-1820: Unfortunately; Haiti is divided into two zones. Northern Haiti is occupied by Henri Christopher, who is named Emperor, while the north is occupied by Alexander Petion. Petion is probably the greatest Haitian politician who ever lived.
1880: Haiti has one of the richest ecosystems in the Caribbean.
1900: Haiti´s modern political has been tumultuous, marked by dictatorships
1915-1934: Haiti has not had an effective national government Invasion by United States forces. US troops sent to Haiti during civil sub-war.
1918: The Presidential Palace, one of the best national palaces in the world, is originally designed by the Haitian Georges Bassan. Bassan is inspired to White House Washington.
1926: Emily Greene Balch, a human rights activist, went to Haiti.
1928: Cator is the only Haitian ever to win olympic silver medal. After, Haitian athlete Sylvio Cator breaks the men's long jump record in Paris. Cator was given a hero's welcome when he returned to his country.
1937: In the Dominican Republic, Rafael Leonidas Trujillo ordered national troops to massacre of 20000 Haitian emigrants.
1940-1950: Haiti is one of the most popular travel destinations in the Caribbean.
1944: Dewitt Peters, an American school-teacher, founded the Centre d'Art in Port -au-Prince Since 1944, Centre d'Art became the centre of the Haitian painting. It is now one of Haiti´s biggest tourist attractions, and every year thousands of people came to see the paintings and other work of Haitian art.
1945: Haiti becomes the 26th member of the United Nations in October.
1956: Haiti establishes diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan).
1956: Daniel Fignolé is President of the Provisional Council and Head of State of Haiti
1957-1971:After working for a time as a traditional doctor, Francois Duvalier became one of Haiti's most famous doctors. In 1957, Duvalier is elected President of the Republic of Haiti. President Duvalier announced: "My government will guarantee the exercise of liberty to all Haitians". Francois Duvalier, also known for his nickname "Papa Doc", emerged as Head of State and quickly gained nearly absolute power. In 1961 "Papa Doc" rewrote the National Constitution. After, he became the first "President for Eternity of Haiti". In the 1960s and 1970s "Papa Doc" popularizes superstitions ideas to Haiti through a series of important voodoo rites. The Duvalier dictatorship instituted rig press censorship. International agencies accuse government of grave human rights abuses. His regime of terror resulted in the deaths of least 30000 Haitian. The Island is one of the most dangerous countries in the Third World.
1957-1981: Haitian First Lady Simone Ovide became one of the most dominant women in the history of Haiti. Simone, wife of the most famous dictator of Haiti, gained in influence and power through corruption and crime.
1957-1989: For many decades, Haiti does not have diplomatic relations with the USSR, People's Republic of China, Cuba, Hungary, South Africa and East Germany.
1960: The Tonton Macoutes, the brutal secret police, initiated a "Haitian genocide" in which political prisoners were tortured and executed.
1964: Joseph Eduard Gaetjens, the idol of millions of Haitians, is arrested and killed by the Tonton Macoutes, the sinister Haitian secret police. Like John Barnes (Jamaica) and Everald "Gally" Cummings (Trinidad Tobago), he was a great footballer in the Caribbean. After, Gaetjens become a world symbol of the struggle against dictatorship in the Third World. He had dual Haitian and American nationality and played at 1950 World Cup for the United States. Son of Haitian mother and Belgium father, he played for many clubs in the United States. The year 1950 was a very important year for Gaetjens: the United States beat England 1-0, the birthplace of the modern football.
1964: Francois Duvalier changed the national flag. Black and red are the colors chosen by Duvalier. Black, which is similar to the Angolan flag, represents the descendants of the patriot Francois Toussaint L'Ouverture and is also the traditional color of the Haitian people. While, red symbolizes the country`s independence. But the original flag, used since 1803, was removed in 1986 by order of the new government.
1966: Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia, arrives in Port-au-Prince. Under the leadership of Dictator Francois Duvalier, many African countries maintain official diplomatic relations with Haiti.
1967: The Comedians, a film by British director Peter Glenville, inspired in the cruel Haitian dictatorship by the Duvalier family.
1971: After Duvalier's death, power passed to his son Jean Claude Duvalier, the man who became known throughout the world as "Baby Doc". Baby Doc is as dictatorial as his father. Haiti is ruled by iron hand. Duvalier, best known for his anticommunist political, is omnipresent. Many opposition leaders were arrested. He is accused of human rights abuses. Thousand of Haitian people fled the country. Corruption is prevalent at all levels of government. The health system is one of the worst in the Americas.
1974: The sporting system is one of the worst in the Third World, but Haiti qualified for the 1974 FIFA World Cup. Haiti beat Trinidad-Tobago in the World Cup qualifiers. Is one of the greatest sporting moment, in the chronology, comparing it to something like Sylvio Cator, who won a silver medal in long jump in the 1928 Olympics Games in Holland.
1975: In El Salvador, Miss Haiti, Gerthie David, is named first runner up at Miss Universe Pageant... transmitting live to millions by CBS. After, Gerthie David is acclaimed in Port-au-Prince as a national heroine. Miss Haiti competed with 71 other women from around the world for the title of Miss Universe, including Miss USA, Summer Barthollomew.
1980: Like Canada, West Germany South Korea and Kenya, Haiti boycott the Moscow Olympic Games in protest for Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
1980-1986: Jean-Claude Duvalier, Haiti's longtime dictator, married Michelle Bennett, an aristocratic lady. A little more than three months later, Bennett-Duvalier becomes First Lady of Haiti. Like Eva Peron (Argentina) or Jiang Qing (People's Republic of China), she was a woman with great power. Michelle Bennett promoted her mulatto countrymen to positions of leadership in the dictatorship at his expense of the African-Haitians.
1982: The National History Park (La Citadelle Laferriere, Sans Souci Palace and Ramiers) is designated as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. Like Machu Picchu (Peru) and Angkor What (Cambodia), the National History Park is considered among the wonders of the world.
1982: Ronald Agenor wins a gold medal in men's tennis singles at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games La Havana. He captures the hearts of the Island.
1983: Pope John Paul arrives in Haiti for a visit. "Things most change here", said John Paul II.
1986: As Jean-Claude consolidated his power, he consistently refused to consider constitutional reform. The insurrection against the dictator Jean Claude Duvalier began...Antigovernment protesters in the capital. Many deaths, injuries and arrests. Seeming end to long Haitian dictatorship with fall of Duvalier regime.
1987: Haiti has one of the America's rates of HIV infection
1987: The New Constitution restored many of the liberties abolished by the Duvalier family. The National Constitution recognizes both French and Creole as official languages. A new opposition emerged under Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1988: Writer Rene Depestre wins the Prix Ranandot. Depestre, a Haitian dissident now living in France, was cited his novel Hadriana dans tous mes reves. By the mid-1980s Rene Depestre had become well known in literacy circles outside Haiti.
1990: Ertha Pascall-Trouillot becomes the first black woman elected of Head of State in the world.
1990: First multi-party elections. Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a charismatic black leader, was elected president of Haiti. Aristide is the first democratic president since 1804.He was elected with the most popular support of any Haitian presidential candidate in the history.
1991: Military coup in the country. Raoul Cedras, leader of the coup, emerged as head of the new government. This year marked the end of eight months of democracy. Under new government, all political parties were dissolved.
1991-1995: Like Equatorial Guinea, Cuba and North Korea, Haiti has one of the most serious human rights problems in the Third World.
1993: United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Haiti, one of the most densely populated nations in the Americas.
1994: Peaceful occupation by United States forces to restore democratic electoral system. Raoul Cedras and his family went into exile in Panama City. Aristide was restored to power.
1995: In Port-au-Prince, sub-war violence includes assassination of Meireille Durocher Bertin.
1995: In Beijing, the capital of city of the People's Republic of China, Haiti participated in the UN`s Fourth World Conference on Women
1996:More than 5,000 Haitians had been killed and miles more fled to abroad, United States, Canada, Bahamas and Dominican Republic, since 1991.
1998: Haitian president Renè Garcia Preval arrives in Taipei (Taiwan) for a four-day state visit. He and President Lee will sign a communiqué to strengthen bilateral friendship and cooperation.
1999: Dominican president Leonel Fernandez visit to Haiti as part of a new diplomacy.
2002: In Paris, Dudley Dorival finished 3rd in the 110 hurdles at the World Championships. He becomes the 1st Haitian to win an individual international medal since 1928.Dorival was born in New Jersey, United States, to Haitian parents on 1 September 1975. He in 2000 officially became a citizen of Haiti.
2000: Haiti is one of the thirty poorest countries in the Third World.
2000-2001: The elections were boycotted by the main opposition political parties. Aristide was again elected President. Widespread violent in Haiti allege that Aristide's election victory is fraudulent. Total political censorship exists in national media.
2004: This year Haiti is celebrating the 200th Anniversary of their National Independence. President Jean-Bertrand Aristide of Haiti flees to Central African Republic following anti-government demonstrations. Haiti has one of the most violent conflict areas in the Americas. After, UN troops sent to Haiti during civil sub-war.
2006: Rene Preval is sworn in as President of Haiti. Since the peaceful transfer of power in February, Haiti is the newest democracy in the Third World.
There are a lot of individuals each year that go on Halloween with handmade costumes and with ready made costumes being pricier with each passing year, it is quite obvious that the need for clever costumes made at home is there.
In the old days, people that were interested in doing their own costume would just grab a piece of white fabric, cut two holes in it and then go out as a ghost. It is a still great idea for people that love ghosts to wear such a costume but there are so many different things that could be done as well.
A vampire is an excellent example of a Halloween costume that can be homemade. All you need is a piece of black fabric to change into a cape (or a cape if you have one handy for other purposes) and then a tin of make-up in order to make the face pale enough that the person can indeed come across as a vampire. To enhance the impression, you should get some lipstick or red crayon and smear some of it across the mouth and teeth of the person dressing up as a vampire. This will add the illusion of the person having just had their dinner of blood and even without the tooth extensions there it is still a wonderful costume to wear.
Another great example of a costume that can be entirely homemade is that of a mad scientist. Many people have chemistry goggles in their homes now because of university children or their own work and therefore a combination of these safety goggles, dark circles under the eyes created with the help of make-up and a white coat it is quite possible to make somebody look like a mad scientist. If you get them to permanently open their eyes as wide as possible when they go out and then mess up their hair so that it looks as shaggy as possible then it will add an effect to the impression given by the costume.
Ghosts, vampires and mad scientists are just three costumes that people used to buy at the store all the time when they went on Halloween journeys. However, it is quite possible to make these and other well-known costumes (i.e.
Inventiveness is the watchword for clever homemade Halloween costumes.