The Essence Of Costume Hats

Costume hats have always been a big part of history. They are not only accessories. At the same time, costume hats remind people of the persons or things associated with them and of how they have made history in this world.

The Cat in the Hat Holds a Very Well-known Costume Hat

Dr. Seuss creation, the Cat in the Hat, introduced the world to the most famous tall, red and white striped chimney hat. Every 2nd of March, nearly all primary schools in the country assign their children to create their own colorful chimney style hat. This is a special way of celebrating Dr. Seuss birthday and of giving importance to his contributions towards education. Other schools distribute costume hats as well as a breakfast of Green Eggs and Ham (another one of Dr. Seusss most famous works) to younger classes.

Color and Shape May Change, still the Jesters Hat Remain Popular

The medieval times Jesters hat is also a popular hat. Until now, it appears in ski caps, party hats and costume hats for Halloween. Its also used during the winter season - where you can already see various versions of Jester hats. They are worn by individuals who go through extreme adventures.

Pirate Captain Jack Sparrow and His Pirate Hat

Johnny Depps character, Pirate Captain Jack Sparrow, was a hit to both adults and kids. Aside from the character, his pirate costume and his brown leather costume hat are also very popular. The hat became very popular and it has been regarded as the best pirate attire in childrens pirate games.

Hats are a part of our countrys history. Even if its Jackie Os famous pillbox hats, Captain Jack Sparrows Pirate hat or the tall chimney pipe red and white striped costume hat of the Cat in the Hat, hats have a made their part in the worlds history.

More Costume History Articles


Areas of fashion

Fashion as social phenomena is common. The rise and fall of fashion has been especially documented and examined in the following fields:


Architecture, interior design, and landscape design

Arts and crafts

Body type, clothing or costume, cosmetics, personal grooming, hairstyle, and personal adornment

Dance and music

Forms of address, slang, and other forms of speech

Economics and spending choices, as studied in behavioral finance

Entertainment, games, hobbies, sports, and other pastimes


Fast fashion

Management, management styles and different ways of organizing

Politics and media, especially the topics of conversation encouraged by the media

Philosophy and religion: although the doctrines of religions and philosophies change very slowly if at all, there can be rapid changes in what areas of a religion or a philosophy are seen as most important and most worth following or studying.

Social networks and the diffusion of representations and practices

Sociology and the meaning of clothing for identity-building

Technology, such as the choice of computer programming techniques

Hospitality industry, such as designer uniforms custom made for a hotel, restaurant, casino, resort or club, in order to reflect a property and brand.

Of these fields, costume especially has become so linked in the public eye with the term "fashion" that the more general term "costume" has mostly been relegated to something fancy dress or masquerade wear, while the term "fashion" means clothing generally, and the study of it. This linguistic switch is due to the so-called fashion plates which were produced during the Industrial Revolution, showing novel ways to use new textiles. For a broad cross-cultural look at clothing and its place in society, refer to the entries for clothing, costume and fabrics. The remainder of this article deals with clothing fashions in the Western world.


2008 runway show

Further information: History of Western fashion

The continually changing fashions of the West have been generally unparalleled either in antiquity or in the other great civilizations of the world until recent decades. Early Western travellers, whether to Persia, Turkey, Japan or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion there, and observers from these other cultures comment on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and lack of order in Western culture. The Japanese Shogun's secretary boasted (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However in Ming China, for example, there is considerable evidence for rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing.

Changes in costume often took place at times of economic or social change (such as in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate), but then a long period without large changes followed. This occurred in Moorish Spain from the 8th century, when the famous musician Ziryab introduced sophisticated clothing styles based on seasonal and daily timings from his native Baghdad and his own inspiration to Crdoba, Spain. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the Middle East from the 11th century, following the arrival of the Turks who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East.

The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in styles can be fairly reliably dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which historians including James Laver and Fernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing. The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing on the chest to look bigger. This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers.

Marie Antoinette was a fashion icon

The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Initially changes in fashion led to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles, which remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, finally those from Ancien Rgime in France. Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance sometimes uncomfortably close for the elites - a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion.

Albrecht Drer's drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoise from Nuremberg (left) with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady's high chopines make her taller

Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Drer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right). The "Spanish style" of the end of the century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.

Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut changed more slowly. Men's fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theatres of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles: an example is the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie.

The pace of change picked up in the 1780s with the increased publication of French engravings that showed the latest Paris styles; though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France as patterns since the 16th century, and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion from the 1620s. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were): local variation became first a sign of provincial culture, and then a badge of the conservative peasant.

Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations before, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally taken to date from 1858, when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris. Since then the professional designer has become a progressively more dominant figure, despite the origins of many fashions in street fashion.

Modern Westerners have a wide choice available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect that person's personality or likes. When people who have cultural status start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. People who like or respect them may start to wear clothes of a similar style.

Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation, occupation, and geography as well as over time. If, for example, an older person dresses according to the fashion of young people, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms fashionista or fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows the current fashions.

One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. (Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes.)


Fashion shot from 2006

An important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique and commentary can be found in magazines, newspapers, on television, fashion websites, social networks and in fashion blogs.

At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs or (PicS) and became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years).

Vogue, founded in the US in 1892, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap colour printing in the 1960s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines - followed by men's magazines from the 1990s. Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses. Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows like FashionTelevision started to appear. Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the industry.

Fashion Editor, Sharon Mclellan said, "There's a misconception in the industry that TV, magazines and blogs dictate to the consumer, what to wear. But most trends aren't released to the public before consulting the target demographic. So what you see in the media is a result of research of popular ideas among the people. Essentially, fashion is a group of people bouncing ideas off of one another, like any other form of art."

Intellectual property

Within the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry. To "take inspiration" from others' designs contributes to the fashion industry's ability to establish clothing trends. Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success. Intellectual property rules that interfere with the process of trend-making would, on this view, be counter-productive. In contrast, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details by larger companies is what often contributes to the failure of many smaller or independent design companies.

In 2005, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) held a conference calling for stricter intellectual property enforcement within the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and promote competitiveness within the textile and clothing industries.

See also

Look up fashion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fashion

Fashion accessory

Fashion capital

Fashion Net

Fashion week

Sustainable fashion

List of fashion designers

List of fashion topics

Runway (fashion)


^ For a discussion of the use of the terms "fashion", "dress", "clothing" and "costume" by professionals in various disciplines, see Valerie Cumming, Understanding Fashion History, "Introduction", Costume & Fashion Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8967-6253-X

^ Braudel, 312-3

^ Timothy Brook: "The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China" (University of California Press 1999); this has a whole section on fashion.

^ al-Hassani, Woodcok and Saoud (2004), 'Muslim Heritage in Our World', FSTC publisinhg, pp. 38-9

^ Terrasse, H. (1958) 'Islam d'Espagne' une rencontre de l'Orient et de l'Occident", Librairie Plon, Paris, pp.52-53.

^ Josef W. Meri & Jere L. Bacharach (2006). "Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K". Taylor & Francis. p. 162. 

^ Laver, James: The Concise History of Costume and Fashion, Abrams, 1979, p. 62

^ Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Centuries, Vol 1: The Structures of Everyday Life," p317, William Collins & Sons, London 1981

^ Braudel, 317-24

^ Braudel, 313-15

^ Braudel, 317-21

^ Thornton, Peter. Baroque and Rococo Silks.

^ James Laver and Fernand Braudel, ops cit


^ Intellectual Property in Fashion Industry, WIPO press release, December 2, 2005

^ INSME announcement: WIPO-Italy International Symposium, 30 November - 2 December 2005

Further reading

Cumming, Valerie: Understanding Fashion History, Costume & Fashion Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8967-6253-X

Meinhold, Roman (2008) Meta-Goods in Fashion Myths. Philosophic-Anthropological Implications of Fashion Myths. In: Prajna Vihara. Journal of Philosophy and Religion. Bangkok, Assumption University. Vol.8., No.2, July-December 2007. 1-17. ISSN 1513-6442

External links

Fashion at the Open Directory Project

v d e

History of Western fashion


Ancient World in General  Roman


Byzantine  Early Medieval  Anglo-Saxon  12th century  13th century  14th century

Renaissance and Reformation

15th century  15001550  15501600  16001650  16501700

Enlightenment to Regency

17001750  17501795  17951820  1820s


1830s  1840s  1850s  1860s  1870s  1880s  1890s


1900s  1910s

Between the World Wars

1920s  19301945

Cold War

19451959  1960s  1970s  1980s


1990-2009  20002009 in fashion  2010-present

v d e



Cotton  Fur  Leather  Linen  Nylon  Polyester  Rayon  Silk  Spandex  Wool


Blouse  Crop top  Dress shirt  Halterneck  Henley shirt  Hoodie  Jersey  Guernsey (clothing)  Polo shirt  Shirt  Sleeveless shirt  Sweater  T-shirt  Tube top  Turtleneck

Trousers or pants

Bell-bottoms  Bermuda shorts  Bondage pants  Boxer shorts  Capri pants  Cargo pants  Culottes  Cycling shorts  Dress pants  Jeans  Jodhpurs  Overall  Parachute pants  Phat pants   Shorts  Sweatpants  Windpants


A-line skirt  Ballerina skirt  Fustanella  Hobble skirt  Jean skirt  Job skirt  Leather skirt  Kilt  Men's skirts  Microskirt  Miniskirt  Pencil skirt  Poodle skirt  Prairie skirt  Rah-rah skirt  Sarong  Skort  Slip  Train  Wrap


Ball gown  Cocktail dress  Evening gown  Gown  Jumper dress  Little black dress  Petticoat  Sari  Sundress  Tea gown  Wedding dress

Suits and uniforms

Academic dress  Afrocentric suit  Black tie  Buddhist monastic robe  Clerical clothing  Court dress  Gymslip  Jumpsuit  Lab coat  Mao suit  Morning dress  Pantsuit  Red Sea rig  Scrubs  Stroller  Tangzhuang  Tuxedo  White tie


Abaya  Academic gown  Anorak  Apron  Blazer  Cloak  Coat  Duffle coat  Frock coat  Jacket  Greatcoat  Hoodie  Opera coat  Overcoat  Pea coat  Poncho  Raincoat  Redingote  Robe  Shawl  Shrug  Ski suit  Sleeved blanket  Top coat  Trench coat  Vest  Waistcoat  Windbreaker


Boxer briefs  Boxer shorts  Brassiere  Briefs  Compression shorts  Corselet  Corset  Knickers  Lingerie  Long underwear  Men's undergarments  Panties  Teddy  Trunks  Undershirt


Belly chain  Belt  Bow tie  Chaps  Coin purse  Earring  Gaiters  Gloves  Handbag  Leg warmer  Leggings  Necklace  Necktie  Scarf  Stocking  Sunglasses  Suspenders  Tights


Athletic shoe  Boot  Dress shoe  Flip-flops  Hosiery  Pump  Sandal  Shoe  Slipper  Sock


Balaclava  Cap  Fascinator  Gaung Paung  Hat  Headband  Helmet  Hijab  Hood  Kerchief  Mantilla  Niqb  Sombrero  Turban  Ushanka  Veil


Babydoll  Blanket sleeper  Negligee  Nightcap  Nightgown  Nightshirt  Peignoir  Pajamas


Bikini  Swim diaper  Wetsuit

Clothing parts

Back closure  Buckle  Button  Buttonhole  Collar  Cuff  Elastic  Fly  Hemline  Hook-and-eye  Lapel  Neckline  Pocket  Shoulder pad  Shoulder strap  Sleeve  Snap  Strap  Velcro  Waistline  Zipper

National costume

Abaya  Aboyne dress  o b ba  o di  o t thn  Baro't saya  Barong Tagalog  Bunad  jbningurinn  Cheongsam  Dashiki  Deel  Dhoti  Dirndl  Djellaba  Gkti  Gho & Kira  Han Chinese clothing  Hanbok  Jellabiya  Jilbb  Kebaya  Kente cloth  Kilt  Kimono  Lederhosen  Sampot  Sarafan  Sari  Sarong  Scottish dress

Historical garments

Banyan  Bedgown  Bodice  Braccae  Breeches  Breeching  Brunswick  Chemise  Chiton  Chlamys  Doublet  Exomis  Farthingale  Frock  Himation  Hose  Houppelande  Jerkin  Justacorps  Palla  Peplos  Polonaise  Smock-frock  Stola  Toga  Tunic

History and surveys

Africa  Ancient Greece  Ancient Rome  Ancient world  Anglo-Saxon  Byzantine  Clothing terminology  Dress code  Early Medieval Europe  Formal wear  Han Chinese clothing  History of clothing and textiles

Related Fashion History Articles

Appreciating History through History

Change is inevitable in life due to constant innovations. This is probably why so many people nowadays obsessively take pictures of everything. Whenever someone sees something worth taking a picture of, they instantly look for a camera in an effort to preserve the moment.


Admittedly, some things in the past are not worth remembering. A number of devices and some fashion styles came and went because these are simply not worthy of anyone's time. Although forgetting maybe appropriate in these instances, other cases must be re-examined carefully. Historical events and places are certainly worth revisiting to remind us of its lesson.


Many of us would claim that they do not have the time to review a certain history; this is why history books continue to gather dusts in bookshelves. However, not all is yet lost because history is everywhere.

Architecture speaks of history, when a person sees pyramids, they may automatically think of the rise and fall of Egypt.


If one thinks about it carefully, even a historical event can be a possible reminder of another historical moment. Take for example the rise in houses for sale in Tulsa, Oklahoma during the oil boom. This could serve as a reminder of the sudden rise of Native American settlements after The Trail of Tears. Both these events saw a sudden rise in the number of people living in that particular area. At the same time it also reminds us of a darker period in history.


The infamous Trail of Tears brought about deaths to thousands of Native Americans.

If moving nowadays is hard, imagine what it was like a hundred years ago. The natives back then had no houses in Tulsa they would automatically call their home when they traveled. Their migration caused them many sufferings because of the conditions that the colonizers forced upon them.


For one, the move was sudden. In the wake of the forced move, looters also became another problem as they ransacked the natives' settlements. The timing of the move also took place in winter thus causing more hardship. Hunting for food was almost impossible during this season and hunger became inevitable. Whenever you get a chance to visit a foreign place, ask yourself of its history. Sometimes even something as simple as houses in Tulsa or a wall in Tuscany could yield many lessons.

Find More Drees History Articles

Kid's Spiderman Costumes

The traditional blue and red Spiderman costume is one of the most popular of all children's costumes. Kid's Spiderman costumes are some of the most fun costumes. And these will be hot choices this fall. Your child will be excited no matter what type of event they are attending. The kid's Spiderman costume is perfect for Halloween events. It is also a wonderful asset to a theme party.

The costume typically includes this wonderful super hero style costume. It has a great jump suit, as well as, the traditional Spiderman mask. The history of this comic book hero, is so well known that fans will always flock to it. The jump suit has the authentic spider logo on the torso. Under the arm area, comes a fun webbed attachment.

Your child will not only look like this popular cartoon character, they will feel like him, too. The real looking Spiderman mask is also a fantastic asset.

This mask is a hood that slide on easily. It has the character eyes we've all come to know and love. It only enhances the entire costume, and will provide an evening of fun.

The extra accessories to this costume are absolutely wonderful. Some of these are going to truly be must have items. One of these is the traditional Spiderman socks. These socks actually fit over your child's shoes. No matter what shoes are worn, they will still be step into character without fail.

Another classic item is the Spiderman gloves. These gloves allow for simulation of the real Spiderman. With these gloves your child will instantly turn into a web slinger. Choosing your accessories carefully will provide the character look, you're really looking for.

There are also kid's Spiderman costumes for younger children, too.

These costumes have a lot of the authentic appeal the larger child's costume does. This costume comes in sizes 2T, 3T, and 4T. Younger children will be able to have just as much fun as their siblings. The smaller costume comes in the same gorgeous red and blue colors.

This costume has a large spider logo on the chest area. This spider is sitting on the real looking web, just like the larger costume. One cute difference in this costume, is the addition of muscles. This little super hero costume, includes padded muscles, which are made into the outfit. This costume is essentially a jump suit. Along with this jump suit, you will receive a beautiful mask.

Since the jump suit does not cover the feet, you will need to purchase socks. You can find matching red socks to accompany this costume, quite easily. Some parents will opt to buy matching shoes for their Spiderman ensemble. It doesn't matter which you decide on. Your costume will still be great.

If you're a bit behind in time, don't worry. In most cases, these costumes can be rush ordered. Check into this option when ordering your costume. Before you know it, you'll be looking at a real life little hero.

More Costume History Articles

Cosmetics Shops Limits Competition Rules Of The Game Pattern Analysis - Cosmetics, Cosmetic Shops -

Has 2200 years of history, Guangdong, known as the birthplace of Lingnan culture, maritime Silk Road, the birthplace of modern democratic revolution source, known as land reform and opening up first. In the long history, the southern Guangdong earth bred blend of East and West, deep inside the Lingnan culture has become a wonderful work of Chinese culture.

In Guangdong, Cosmetic Retail stores as a form of earlier in the late 80s, along with Guangzhou on the rapid development of distribution business, cosmetics shop in the early 90s has a scale; then with the continuous progress of reform and development of Guangdong and Hong Kong the concept of cultural elements and the continuous impact of fashion consumption, cosmetic shops in the late 90s has made rapid development, and occupied the whole day products in Guangdong great sales.

In the past five years, along with Watson, Citistore, Mannings, Research Workshop and a number of Korea and the United States and makeup beauty chain's rapid development and growth, resulting in the entire Pearl River Delta region and Guangdong province in the days of Retailing has undergone tremendous structural change, which the United States and beauty shops, cosmetic boutiques, shops and a number of personal care products, Guangdong cosmetic shops began to play a more important role since, with its excellent product quality, good marketing planning, professional service, competitive prices and promotions magnificent form, continue to be more common female consumers attention and acceptance. Watson Yijijuechen rule the roost in the Pearl River Delta

Watson, Watson's full name is the personal care stores (hereinafter referred to as Watson), Watson is at this stage the region's largest chain of personal care products, is currently the world's largest health and beauty retailer and Perfume , And cosmetics retailers. Watson in the "three-dimensional conservation and personal care products" in the field, not only brings together many of the world's top brands, but also their development and production of more than 1,300 species of its own brand. Watson currently 36 in Asia and Europe markets, 1,800 cities with 18 retail brands, more than 7,700 retail outlets, each week more than 2,500 people around the world to provide the personal care services. Store Locator

to "health, beauty and fun" business philosophy, target customer orientation 18-45 years old fashion urban white-collar family, goods, including cosmetics, skin care, fashion accessories, health products, snack foods and gifts, etc. category is divided into four categories, subdivided into 47 categories, brought together more than 20 countries in more than 20,000 SKUs. Roughly 15% by drugs, cosmetics 52%, jewelry 15%, 18% sweets distributed.

Article published in the vPro | boraid |
In Watson's localization process in the past 18 years among the leading "discovery display" and "experiential shopping" to persist in a down and try to create a friendly, dynamic and exciting shopping environment for customers to easily find unique, creative and fun, high quality and value for money products.

A second-tier cities in the country now has more than 380 stores of which, the number of stores in Guangdong to about one-third of the total number of stores. In Watson's shop operators which always hold true to the "so customers can find more beautiful, healthy and happy new method" of the brand construction concept. Watson's product group structure in which the main product from the well-known brand Proxy Goods and own brand products, whose own brand range of goods accounts for roughly 25% ratio.

Guangdong has always been the focus of the market, as Watson and production, in Watson's systematic management of the national background, has always played a very important positive role. Over the past three years, the Guangdong region of Watson made the following main results: First, in business areas: the market as the basis of Watson's Guangdong Province is the best, and its performance is directly related to the performance of the national market for business performance and statements of operations, so Watson's headquarters for the main business income of Guangdong Watson indicators and operational targets are the country's highest incremental sales, of course, Watson has also given considerable independence in Guangdong operation of flexible space; Secondly, in the marketing field : The Watsons stores in Guangdong Province launched the first "I swear, genuine goods real cheap" and "post and a half times the" other end of competition and marketing and promotion strategies.

More Cosmetic History Articles

History Of Cosmetic Surgery

These days, liposuction is one of the most popular cosmetic surgery procedures in western countries, but it’s only in the 20th and 21st centuries that the option has become a viable choice for those struggling with the appearance of fatty deposits around the body. While people have been focused on discovering ways to improve their appearance as far back as Egyptian times, it’s only comparatively recently that cosmetic surgery has become safe and available for the general public.

Many of the techniques and technology that are commonly used in cosmetic surgery today were developed and perfected during the first and second world wars. While it was not an entirely new science in the early 20th century, the complex injuries – particularly facial ones – suffered by soldiers saw doctors looking for innovate ways to aid reconstruction. However, while many of the techniques and expertise is similar, cosmetic surgery and reconstructive surgery are categorised differently.

Reconstructive surgery typically refers to surgery that is performed to repair a variety of impairments or deformities while cosmetic surgery is typically described as surgery performed for aesthetic reasons.

However, the boundaries between these two types and definitions of surgery are often blurred and some people argue that procedure such as breast augmentations can belong in either category, depending on the circumstances.

In the early years of the 21st century, cosmetic surgery procedures such as breast augmentation, tummy tucks, face lifts and eye bag removal were among the most popular cosmetic surgery procedures. However, the last few years have also seen a huge rise in the number of people choosing non surgical solutions such as Botox, fillers, skin peels and laser hair removal.

The global recession is thought to have been one reason for the growth in the number of people turning to non surgical solutions, as more people are looking for less expensive ways to improve their appearance.

However, cosmetic surgery procedures remain popular despite the economic downturn, with men also increasingly turning to surgery.

While cosmetic surgery was once thought of as a predominantly female field – and one only achievable by the rich and famous – a larger number of men and people on an average annual income are turning to cosmetic surgeons to boost their confidence. What’s more, the continued investment in cosmetic surgeries and new techniques means that popular surgeries such as liposuction and breast enlargement are being refined and improved all the time, to offer patients better treatments and faster recovery times.

Fashion in History Part 1

Since the Ice Age and dawn of society, men and women have been wearing fashion. You may not think that clothing was considered fashion back in the early days of the icy glaciers but when thought about, style was always evident. When man was creating his clothing he was doing it for the main purpose of warmth and protection from the harsh conditions, but back in this age there was a lot of competition between the men. So obviously he would have strived to produce something fine enough to outdo the others so that he stood out as the alpha male among his tribe.


As the centuries went on so did the competition to look the best. Men and women have been striving to look their most stylish for the best part of a millennium. So maybe the need to look fashionable is buried deep within our genes.

Looking back over the past few centuries you can see that rivalry between people to look good is one that has always been apparent.


Fast forward a few years from the ice age and you have the Ancient Greeks and the Romans who used their fine clothing to separate the dignitaries from the commoners. If you were less important you did not wear the refined fashions that the higher class civilians adorned. Gladiators and noble men showed their authority by dressing in luxury attire and looked down on those who wore rags or simple cloths.


When it was the turn of Queen Elizabeth to rule England, styles changed again. A lot of change was happening during this time along with the textile industry.

For women, large uncomfortable dresses were the order of the day while men donned layers and layers of unnecessary fabric. Ornamental design and intricate details wear added to garments to create the look of wealth and affluence. The bigger your clothes were the more rich and dignitary you appeared.


With the 17th century you would not have been out of place wearing an extravagant and colourful dress like outfit, if you were a man. Styles were extremely elegant and frivolous with males choosing satin suits and petticoat breeches which appeared somewhat like a rather large skirt. Women adorned dresses that were slightly less rigid than the previous century’s, yet still acquired an uncomfortable feel.


For more interesting facts on past styles, read the next article on fashion in history and learn how the other centuries dressed during their times. 

More Fashion History Articles

History War

The practice of focusing on loudness in mastering can be traced back to the introduction of the compact disc itself but also existed to some extent when vinyl was the primary released recording medium and when 7" singles were played on jukebox machines in clubs and bars. Jukeboxes were oftensettoapre-determinedlevelbyPatek Philippe watches the bar owner, yet any record that was mastered "hotter" than the others before or after it would gain the attention of the crowd. The song would stand out. Many record companies would print compilation records, and when artists and producers found their song was quieter than others on the compilation, they would insist that their song be remastered to be competitive. Also, many Motown records pushed the limits of how loud records could be made, and record labels there were "notorious for cutting some of the hottest 45s in the industry."[2] However, because of the limitations of the vinyl format, loudness and compression on a released recording were restricted in order to make the physical medium playablerestrictions which do not exist on digital media such as CDsand as a result, increasing loudness levels never reached the significance that they have in the CD era.[3] In addition, modern computer-based digital audio effects processing allows mastering engineers to have greater control over the loudness of a song; for example, it gives them the ability to use a "brick wall" limiter which limits the volume level of an audio signal with no delay (hardware equivalents have a short delay caused by processing time).[4]
The stages of the CDs loudness increase are often split over the two-and-a-half decades of the medium's existence. Since CDs were not the primary medium for popular music until the tail end of the 1980s, there was little motivation for competitive loudness practices then. CD players were also very expensive and thus commonly exclusive to high-end systems that would show the shortcomings of higher recording levels.
As a result, the common practice of mastering music involved matching the highest peak of a recording at, or close to, digital full scale, and referring to digital levels along the lines of more familiar analog VU meters. When using VU meters, a certain point (usually -14 dBFS, or about 20% of the disc's amplitude on a linear scale) was used in the same way as the saturation point (signified as 0 dB) of analog recording, with several dB of the CD's recording level reserved for amplitude exceeding the saturation point (often referred to as the "red zone", signified by a red bar in the meter display), because digital media cannot exceed 0 dB. The average level of the average rock song during most of the decade was around -18 dBFS.[citation needed]
At the turn of the decade, CDs with music louder than this level began to surface, and CD volumes became more and more likely to exceed the digital limit as long as such amplification would not involve clipping more than approximately two to four digital samples, resulting in recordings where the peaks on an average rock or beat-heavy pop CD hovered near (usually in the range of -3 dB) 0 dB but only occasionally reached it. The Guns N' Roses album Appetite for Destruction from 1987 is an early example of this, with levels averaging -15 dB for all the tracks.[5]
In the early 1990s, some mastering engineers decided to take this a step further and treat the music's levels exactly as they would the levels of an analog tape and equate digital full scale with the analog saturation point, with the recording just loud enough so that each (or almost every) beat would peak at or close to 0 dBFS. Though there were some early cases (such as Metallica's Black Album in 1991), albums mastered in this fashion generally did not appear until 1992. Dirt by Alice In Chains and Faith No More's Angel Dust are some examples from this year. The loudness of releases during this period varied greatly depending on the philosophies of the engineer and others involved in the mastering process. This style of "hot" mastering became commonplace in 1994, though exceptions, such as the album Superunknown by Soundgarden from the same year, still existed. The most common loudness for a rock release in terms of average power was around -12 dBFS. Overall, most rock and pop music released in the 1990s followed this method to a certain extent.[citation needed]
The concept of making music releases "hotter" began to appeal to people within the industry, in part because of how noticeably louder releases had become and also in part to the notion that customers preferred louder sounding CDs.[citation needed] Engineers, musicians and labels each developed their own ideas of how CDs could be made louder.[citation needed] In 1994, the digital brickwall limiter with look-ahead (to pull down peak levels before they happened) was first mass-produced. While the increase in CD loudness was gradual throughout the 1990s, some opted to push the format to the limit, such as on Oasis's widely popular album (What's the Story) Morning Glory?, which averaged -8 dBFS on many of its tracksa rare occurrence, especially in the year it was released (1995). In 1997, Iggy Pop assisted in the remix and remaster of the 1973 album Raw Power by his former band The Stooges, creating an album that, to this day, is arguably the loudest rock CD ever recorded. It has an average of -4 dBFS in places.[5]
Loud mastering practices caught media attention in 2008 with the release of Metallica's Death Magnetic album. The CD version of the recording has a high average loudness that pushes peaks beyond the point of digital clipping, resulting in distortion. These findings were reported by customers and music industry professionals. These findings were later covered in multiple international publications, including Rolling Stone,[6] The Wall Street Journal,[7] BBC Radio,[8] Wired,[9] and The Guardian.[10] Ted Jensen, a mastering engineer involved in the Death Magnetic recordings, subsequently criticized the approach employed during the production process.[11] A version of the release without dynamic range compression was included in the downloadable content for Guitar Hero III.[12]
The standards of loudness would reach their limit in the 2000s. -10 dB had been the standard for the past several years, but this was often pushed to -9 dB. However, -6 to -5 dBFS is common in rock, contemporary R&B, pop, and hip hop music. Quieter exceptions to today's standards are rare. The releases of 2008 reached average levels as high as -3 dBFS, such as Angels & Airwaves' I-Empire, which yields almost 30 times the loudness of a THX standard recording (-20 dBFS). However, in late 2008, mastering engineer Bob Ludwig offered three versions of the Guns N' Roses album Chinese Democracy for approval to co-producers Axl Rose and Caram Costanzo, and they selected the one with the least compression. Ludwig wrote, "I was floored when I heard theydecidedtogowithmyfulldynamicsomega watch version and the loudness-for-loudness-sake versions be damned."[13] Ludwig feels that the "fan and press backlash against the recent heavily compressed recordings finally set the context for someone to take a stand and return to putting music and dynamics above sheer level."[13]

Most Influential Fashion Designers in History

It's almost impossible for one person to say who the most influential fashion designers in history are, especially when you consider how many centuries that people have been designing fashions in every country in the world. There are a few design gurus from the last century, however, who stand out among the design movements of Europe and the Americas. These include some famous names like Prada, Armani and Dolce & Gabbana—all of whom are discussed in further detail below.

Giorgio Armani

The legend known simply as Armani is often referred to as the "King of Lifestyle." Just as Ralph Lauren has mastered the design of "lifestyle" clothing in America, Giorgio Armani has become the most famous lifestyle designer from Italy. His collections have been hugely successful around the world because of the high-quality tailoring and minimum, fluid designs that took formal jackets and other traditional wear to a new level of comfort and style.

You can find his clothing in films, on red carpets, and on everyone from monarchs to businesspeople on their lunch breaks.

Domenico Dolce & Stefano Gabbana

Dolce & Gabbana also hail from Italy, the Mecca of fashion design. This powerful fashion design house continues to evolve and expand the horizons of its blissfully feminine artistic influence. You can find the affordably priced designs of their second label, D&G, on street corners around the world. Dolce & Gabbana's high-end collections can also be found on red carpets and finer affairs in the most modern cities. The Dolce & Gabbana aesthetic is known for feminine curves, tight tailoring and exuberant patterns, including animal prints and florals mixed with corsets, rhinestones and other embellishments.

Miuccia Prada

Prada has become a household name decades after Miuccia's entrance into the fashion world. She is unusual in the design world, having earned a PhD in Political Science and founded a fashion powerhouse in an industry dominated by male designers. Miuccia Prada has been able to influence fashion for decades and remains relevant today because she changes her aesthetic often and never lets her company's latest collections become stale or cyclical. Although the aesthetic of the collections is always changing, Prada is known for a few things: intricate and highly structured shoes, odd color choices and skirts including the dirndl and the A-line. Every season her designs have a new focus, though, with elements such as this season's focus on lace, changing the face of Prada.

More Fashion History Articles

Obtain Cheap Costumes On Web

Cheap costumes are the most widely entertaining season. It is predominantly credited to the full of fun outfit worn out by people and dress party that has been supposed. This is the lone instance to facilitate one that would entirely ordinary. The most ordinary is the Greek style of dress. Because of that is equally attractive as well as simple to achieve. There have been lots of dissimilar letters that one could be for Disney costume and Halloween costumes like letters from myths and antique history. By means of cheap outfit, eye-catching a superman mass has become just costume away.
One may carry cheap costumes through novel life plus everyone it receive a good-quality outfits that would instantaneously convert someone into a superhero. If one is getting-together in a costumes function, improve your self-assurance by leaping into single. Somebody would definitely captivate everybody public will may be assume they are in dreams because of a cheap batman costumes has a single approach of renovate conformist appearance into an unusual looks. These Disney costume and Halloween costumes presents in different styles and a range of style to go well with according to age, persona, and choice. In addition to above, Disney princess costume can use in behalf of the annually Halloween traps or treat, although girls loving to have play dress up.
And now cheap costumes move towards in the conformist red and white conversely they comes in pink colors also. They could move towards in exclusive red velvet, by means of phony white fur tidy silk apron as well as lace trim, this also move towards by an attractive red wipe up cap. One just has a white wig plus one would come across like the true contract. Somebody could obtain a cheeky one that move towards in red velveteen costume which is relatively short, this also has the fake white fur smart and broad black belt, just find you. Now, the very much trendy as well as genuine Disney costume and Halloween costumes is motivated through the Hollywood star otherwise through famed political persons.
In this 2010 cheap costumes top, get a big achievement, the dress are influence with the Hollywood blockbuster and through the Disney delightful stories as well as animation chain. Teens outfits expect party forever that they can be attending to. These party could means of pleasurable and also enthusiasm for teens costumes. Halloween is a flavour in which much outfits party are celebrate. There are many of these events that can be occurring.

Snowboarding History

Snowboarding was actually developed back in the 1960's. It started as a crude sport with homemade equipment. It wasn't very well known and there weren't equipment manufacturers for the sport like there is today. Even though it is actually hard to actually determine who really invented the sport, or even the first snowboard, some hints of its origin can be tracked all the way back to the 1920s.

Way back then, it was basically just putting a piece of plywood in the snow to use as a homemade sled mechanism, just for fun. Eventually, other similar devices were developed by several different people just out of necessity to provide their children with fun toys to entertain themselves with. One such father was Sherman Poppen who developed the Snurfer (named by his wife) for his daughter. Several people loved the idea of the Snurfer and Poppen began to sell them.

Competitions were developed which in time evolved into a sport, but snowboarding was yet to come. One of the well known Snurfers was Jake Burton.

Burton wanted to surf but his parents wouldn't buy him a board. He really loved the Snurfer and began to participate in the competitions where he became well known in the newly created sport. Later, after Burton graduated from college, he began production on his own line of snowboards. This line was the first to incorporate the use of ski technology and made Burton's boards more maneuverable than the Snurfer. He really caught the attention of onlookers when he won the Snurfer competition with his own snowboard creation. He blew away the competition with the maneuverability of his creation and the skills that it allowed him to develop. Today, Burton's boards are the most popular brand of snowboards making him one of the pioneers of the sport.

Dimitrije Milovich was another pioneer of the sport of snowboarding.

He too developed his own brand of board back during the time Burton was still riding the Snurfer. Milovich is credited with helping to raise the profile of snowboarding because he helped to get articles about the sport of snowboarding published in magazines such as Newsweek, Playboy and others.

In the 1980's, a couple of different boarding magazines hit the newsstands. This helped to make the sport more recognizable. Although many followers began to participate in the sport it did not increase to the popularity of other sports until snowboarding debuted as an official sport at the Olympic Winter Games in Japan in the late 90's. After this, the sport commanded a following of seven million participants in the United States alone. Although it was once considered to be a sport of radical, rebellious young men, snowboarding has now become popular with both men and women. It is not gender specific anymore. Considered an extreme sport, it requires dedication, skill and determination, and can be very dangerous.

Snowboarding has gone far from its humble beginnings with equipment made in shop classes and garages to being one of the most popular winter sports across the globe.

History Of Fashion And Dress Up Games

Dressing up games are extremely popular among the teenage kids, who would like to invest their time on the Globe Wide Internet, dressing up their favorite fashion icons and characters from the favorite novels or actors. Some of the well-known characters that have taken the world by a storm are the Barbie along with the Bratz. Girls all over the globe genuinely like to experiment with their wardrobes and types and like to dress them up based on their fashion statements and design appeals. These lifeless characters turn into alive together with the numerous make up strategies as nicely because the clothes the gamers shop for them with all the help on the around the internet games created specially for this objective.

The dress up rush is one on the famous on-line dress games which no female may resist. Any woman who likes to shop will appreciate this game too.

As it enables the women to accomplish their dream of owning, a method icon boutique and flaunt their dresses within the fashion globe. From supplying the fashion solution for the customers like option of colour, choice of fabric etc. the ladies indulge in a variety of other actions like making their rather own fashion clothes and assisting the others with their attire needs pertaining to many events. Many of the instances, the on the internet games allow the outcomes to become shared using the rest of the world. That is created possible using the support of your storage space, which is supplied to the players around the game server where they may retailer the wonders that they have created in the fashion world to share with their buddies or family later on.

An additional sport rather famous among these that like to play the style games is the Hayden Panettiere Celebrity Makeover sport.

The sport revolves around a fiction character named Miss Panettiere, who wants to possess a makeover based on the part demands on the popular show through which she is acting. The storyline entails the character of Miss Panettiere taken from the Heroes exhibit. The makeover for that show is crucial due to the fact it permits the character to blend in together with the function requirement therefore, providing a probability for that exhibit to proceed together with the recording easily.

In case of any fault, the players should be capable to face the thunder with the director of your display. The makeover does not only revolve across the ideal makeup, quite, it also needs to be completed together with the perfect outfit to match the activities and the scenarios from the display. The backdrops with the scenes may also be transformed to bring out more than likely the most effective of the seems from the make-up and also the clothes in the recreation. The whole game can be played with all the help with the mouse movement, significantly to your ease from the gamers.

Find different dress up games and addicting games

A Brief History Of Cosmetic Dentistry

Cosmetic dentistry has come a long way in the past few decades. For centuries however, there have been some forms of cosmetic dental surgery that have been practiced. It is from these primitive methods that we now have the advancements that we do today.

One of the most commonly practiced methods by cosmetic dentists in the past was teeth whitening. For hundreds of years, people used various methods to whiten their teeth. While people of today want white teeth mainly for aesthetic reasons, in the past having white teeth often signified wealth and status.

Those that were wealthy and of high stature in a community wanted the whitest teeth possible to show their prestige. Various forms of teeth whitening compounds were used to whiten teeth. Some cultures used acids to whiten teeth, however it was quickly realized that the acid actually ate away at the tooth enamel and caused severe damage to the tooth. Other cultures actually used urine as a method to whiten teeth, as the ammonia in urine worked for removing tooth stains. From these primitive methods, early dentists were able to discover newer ways to whiten teeth that were much less damaging, as well as more palatable.

Early innovators were also able to create various methods to replace teeth that were lost to make a persons smile more appealing, as well as help with function of the mouth. Early sets of dentures were made from wood to help replace teeth both for appearance, and for function. As technology advanced, primitive sets of dentures made from ceramics started to be used until further advancements allowed to us discover the products that we use today.

Though early cosmetic dentistry was certainly primitive, and would be appalling to the people of today, it opened the doors for the advancements that we have made. Fortunately, there are now large selections of cosmetic dentistry procedures available that are much more effective and much more appealing to those looking to improve their smile.

Grantham History

The Spotted Cow began life as a beer house, before being re-built in its present form to become a Public House, at the turn of the 20th century.  The property eventually received its full license after The Artichokes Inn on Swinegate was closed in 1921.  The property received heavy damage during World War II after a Nazi bomb exploded in the street outside, causing damage to the front windows and removing most of the roofing tiles.  John Smiths Brewery bought the property is 1971 from Warwick & Richardson Brewery of Newark.  Circa 2002 it became an Indian Restaurant before being bought in a dilapidated state in December 2008 by Ian Carroll Limited, builder in Lincolnshire , with the intention of converting the property into two high grade offices and two luxury apartments.


The property at the present moment is undergoing extensive renovation, though it is to be noted that the external features as far as possible are going to be in keeping with what the property was like during the middle of its life.  However the internals of the property will be modified to incorporate two offices on the ground floor and two apartments on the first floor.  Allow us to begin firstly by considering the external façade of the property.


To try and maintain the property to be in keeping with what it was like previously historical research was undertaken.  Surprisingly, even with it being a social hub in the Southern end of Grantham, very few photographs could be obtained, and very few facts about the property could be found, the most being summarised in the introduction of this article.  However from the photographs that was found at least one was of value.  Firstly the chimneys were removed to aid in maintenance of the property in later years, but also more importantly they were of value as the bricks were saved, and used to make good any alterations to the external of the property.  The original roof tiles were removed and the entirety of the pitched roof section re-felted and battened.  The next major step in the project was the choice of roof tile that was to be used to re-tile the roof.  Here again major effort was inputted.  The choice was narrowed down through the reasons outlined previously, leaving a replacement clay tile as the only choice.  Today only two major tile companies still manufacture the modern alternative to the original clay tile, Sandtoft and Marley Eternet.  The main deciding factor between these companies was that one choice had colour consistency through out the tile, therefore this was chosen.  To be in keeping with Public House tradition and to also highlight the building from those surrounding it, a mixture of single camber red smooth clay tiles and four rows of red smooth clay club tiles in the middle, run through the entirety of the roof.  The ridge tiles again were specifically chosen to highlight the building, these being two hole crested ridge, these being chosen to offset the loss of the chimneys.  The rainwater gutters and down pipes were replaced like for like with similar cast iron products.


The external woodwork of the building was another key issue.  With the frontage of the building sporting mock Tudor façade to the top half of the property, obviously some of these beams needed replacement.  Again in keeping with the originality of the property these replacements were custom made in Oak to the original sizes.  The fascia boards also were replaced where needed.  However one of the main focal points of the property was also in need of replacement, these being the large finials to the tops of both gable ends at the front.  Once removed it was soon realised that these weren’t to the original design as seen in the photos found.  Therefore new finials were custom made in Oak to match as closely as possible the design as seen in the photographs.


The external rendering of the building was also in poor condition in some areas, here the rendered panels were chopped off and replaced with products to match the original as close as possible. 


Another main feature of the building was that of the windows.  The original were of a wooden construction.  Here uPVC products were considered for fitting, but soon dismissed as not in keeping with the spirit of the building.  Therefore it was decided that new custom made windows would be used manufactured out of Sapelli.  The windows to the entirety of the property were to match the design of the windows to the front elevation.  However building regulations also needed to be taken into account through out the design process of the windows, this being that the windows had to open far enough for escape in the event of a fire.  26mm double glazed units are fitted to meet current energy efficiency ratings and also Georgian bars are incorporated into the top panels of the windows, again to mirror the heritage of the building.


The front and side elevations of the property are decorated to be a light colour and the woodwork again to be black at this present moment in time. 


Allow us now to consider the internal aspects of the project.  As stated previously the use of the property is to be changed from that of a public building into two private apartments and two offices.  Here at the beginning of the project, all the existing electrical systems were stripped out to make ready for four new electrical services, each to cater for the use of each sub-dwelling.  The existing plumbing system was also removed to make way for four new plumbing systems, consisting of mainly of hot and cold water feeds to all four sub-dwellings.  It needs to be mentioned at this stage that wiring is also incorporated to allow for remote key-fob locking on all external doors and also remote video entrance system for the apartments to the first floor.


The layout of the internals is greatly changed from that previously.  The most notable one being the re-positioning of the staircase to the first floor, so that the most space efficient layout could be used in both the apartments and offices below.  The walls between both the offices down stairs and also the apartments upstairs also had to be re-designed in accordance with the current fire regulations.  A fire break had to be incorporated in the roof between the two apartments, to stop the spread of fire through the roof void, but also the wall between the two offices had also to be designed with this in mind.  Stud walls to both floors are also installed to gain the desired layout shape of the property.  Once this was in place all external walls were re-plastered, stud walls boarded and skimmed, and the ceilings double boarded and skimmed also. 

Suspended ceilings are also to be installed in the office spaces


Both apartments are to incorporate new bathrooms, including floors being tiled and all walls being tiled from floor to ceiling, as well as kitchens being fitted to a modern design. 

The offices are to have suspended ceilings to gain a more professional feel to the spaces, storage space for all office essentials, male and female toilets, disable accessible toilet facilities, kitchen fitting in Grantham, all new computer cabling by Grantham Electrician

More Drees History Articles

Cosmetic Surgery: Breast Enhancements History and Future

This behavior has constantly evolved into different forms. People have journeyed far and wide in search of the mythical fountain of youth.  Others have gone organic in turning to natural ingredients as a beautifying ingredient. A few have gone beyond their limits and tapped into the innovative world of science.

Science and technology paved the way for the advancement of modern day beauty. In 1865, the first recorded breast augmentation Clearwater plastic surgeons can recall occurred in Germany. The procedure involved the insertion of fatty tissues from a non-cancerous tumor into the patient’s breasts. The surgeons then injected industrial silicone into the patient’s breasts. However, since it was a relatively new procedure, the injection of industrial silicone led to massive complications that required the removal of the breasts.

Moreover, procedures such as facelift and liposuction were once a taboo for traditional communities believing that people should be contented with what they have.

However, people learned to understand and value the importance of such procedures thereby leading to their acceptance.

Even breast enhancement was frowned upon before. However, studies showed that breast augmentation Tampa surgeons provide helps reduce the risk of depression in women. Various types of breast augmentation have emerged to best suit the needs of different women. The following lists the common types of breast augmentation.

Saline Implants

This type of implant is the only approved breast augmentation procedure in America today.

Saline implants developed from the need to create a safer alternative to silicone ones. Many doubted the safety of silicone implants due to the “silicone scare.” More mastectomy patients with silicone implants suffered from infection or death. However, despite of such news, some people still consider silicone as the better option.

Fat Reallocation

This interesting type of breast augmentation does not require a foreign body inside the human anatomy. Some patients who undergo liposuction opt for the excess fat to be injected in the breasts. The results of this breast augmentation procedure vary from person to person. Since the fat comes from the same person, the risk of the patient’s body rejecting the reallocated fat is significantly reduced.

Cohesive Gel

An emerging technology in breast augmentation St Petersburg surgeons perform is called cohesive gel. The cohesive gel, otherwise known as gummy bear implant, is known to create a more natural look for the breasts compare with saline ones’ tendency to ripple.


Men's Fashion History - Why T shirts are so Popular?

There is a general believe that man are more open and have a casual approach toward the life. This has been proven wit the fashion history of the man. Though the fashion in men has been quite more popular now, but the trend has been going on for a while now. The best of the men dressing has been booked for the nobles or men of the higher class in past and thus that is why we don’t know much about it. However in the current time the fashion trends are no more common to the nobles or any class of people and thus is common to all.

When we talk about the fashion among the men, there an important party of dressing that we should not loose focus on and that has to be the T-shirts. Today almost every man irrespective of there ages wear T-shirts. Now that we know that man’s dress are more of a casual in appearance and should be more comfortable and thus T-shirts fits accurately in the given conditions.When we talk about the T-shirts they are of different type of T-shirts that are common among the people these days.

Though these T-shirts are popular in different age groups but if we look at them overall they have a huge popularity and their popularity is growing with every other day. T-shirts can be divided in to the following type, for the teenagers, for the working people and for the old age people.

The T-shirts which are popular among the youngsters are mostly without the any collar and are casual in nature. These T-shirts are loaded with images of different ideals like some Music band or national flag or some popular sports person.

Thus we can say these youngsters are more interested in wearing the T-shirts which actually inspires them.When we come to the T-shirts which is popular among the working people you have more of a formal t-shirts looks. They often are also called promotional T-shirts as they carry major brands or like their business name on it or company they work for. These T-shirts majorly helps them to convey other what actually they are. So we can say these T-shirts are plain and have small references on it that represent what they belong to.

The last but not the least is the old age people T-shirts. These old age people are generally spotted with the T-shirts that helps them to refer what cause they support. There T-shirts can also carry many different kind of religious messages on them. There are also many of those who are trying to run a business and thus you can spot them with the T-shirts with there business logo on it.

Find More Fashion History Articles

Fashion and The History of Earrings

The use of earrings as a fashion statement has been around since the early Middle Ages – with both men and women. Earrings were also worn in different cultures. The piercing of ears could be considered one of the oldest known forms of body modification. Many museums have on display earrings from archeological digs from as early of time as the Persian Empire. Other ways the history of earrings are determined is through art and literature.

With art, it is shown that in Western Europe, earrings went out of style temporarily and then came back in the Late Middle Ages. The appearance of earrings in a piece of art made a statement about the character, showing that they were not a part of the norm. That is, maybe the person depicted was from another culture such as East Africa. Earrings therefore were considered exotic.

Earrings have also been worn in many ways by people throughout the ages.

Some have pierced just their earlobe while others have preferred clip-ons.

For sailors, piercing the earlobe was preferred. An earring was a symbol that one had sailed around the world or had crossed the equator. Tales also state that sailors wore gold earrings in payment for a proper burial in the event that they might drown at sea. If their bodies were to wash up on shore, it was hoped the earring would serve as payment for their proper Christian burial.

In modern culture, pierced ears in the United States became quite popular in the early 1900s. This trend shifted until the 60s to clip-on earrings and non-piercings. Clip-ons from this era were typically large and ornamental.

By the late 1960s, when piercings came back, it was mostly through the hippy and gay communities. Piercings were done at home. Teenage girls would pierce each other's ears at slumber parties with the use of ice, a needle and a cork.

Then came the punk rock culture and the use of safety pins and multiple piercings. This trend carried throughout the 80s when many popular male musicians had piercings. When professional athletes also began to pierce, especially men, one saw that earrings were for both sexes without a presumption of one's sexuality.

With men getting their ears pierced, women began opting for multiple piercings. Women began wearing a second set of earrings, ear cuffs, and then began opting for cartilage piercing.

Today there are numerous types of piercings one can opt for. They include the tragus piercing, antitragus piercing, rook piercing, industrial piercing, helix piercing, orbital piercing, daith piercing, and conch piercing. There is also earlobe stretching.

With all of these piercings, came a variety of earrings one could purchase. Earring varieties include:

* The Hoop – This is the most ancient of styles. Hoop earrings were wore by the Romans. A hoop threads over the ear and hangs from just inside the ear, above where ears are pierced. Mobiles or other dangles can be hung from the hoop to create a variety of styles. We also think of the hoop as large hoop shaped earrings.
* Clip-On – The clip closes around the earlobe using mechanical pressure.
* Chandelier – This earring has multi-level branches that hang down from the earring base.
* Drop – These earrings are styled with one larger gemstone with other shapes or charms hanging from the earring base. The earring hangs in a straight line from base to end.
* Stud – These earrings are called stud or post but are quite simple. One round gemstone such as a diamond are put through the ear with a back holding them on.

Related Fashion History Articles

Cricket History

The game of cricket is one of the most popular games played today and the huge fan following it has is simply awe inspiring. Most of the countries have a large fan following for this wonderful game of cricket, popularly known as the gentleman's game.

It has been seen that whenever there is a tournament held, you would find majority of the public leaving back all their works to attend this match. Either they remain glued to their television sets or get the tickets to watch the game live at the stadium. It is not a complicated game and hence can be understood easily by a beginner.

Cricket has started off way back in the 16th century or probably even earlier. If one delves down the pages of the history to find out more about this game, you would come upon pages which describe different forms of cricket like that of county cricket, cricket played locally, internationally played cricket etc.  Apart from the information provided on the types and forms of cricket which has been played since the dawn of cricket history, it also gives us an idea on the rules and regulations which are followed while playing this game.

Cricket history also speaks about how the bat originated, which is one of the most significant things in the game of cricket.

The bat which we see nowadays, used in various tournaments played in international or local cricket actually has its origin in the 18th century.  The bat used prior to this was in the shape of a hockey stick. Stone pieces were used as balls in the earlier times, whereas nowadays the cricket balls are made up of cork, enclosed with leather quarters which are hand stitched. Cricket history has always served as a source of information for all the cricket lovers, be it of any nation. It is also sometimes used as a guide to have a clearer idea of the game, to obtain detailed information.

This history also lets you know the practice and traditions of the game. When one goes through the pages of cricket history, you gains immense knowledge on the game, it origin, it rules, its traditions, its founders etc. This game has a charm of its own. Though many have criticized it, remarking it as a game where many fools run after a hit ball, but in reality, when one understands the game, it's actually a pleasure to watch.

The history of cricket can be defined as a complete encyclopedia consisting of the various forms and facts related to the game. This gentleman's game was first played in the 17th century by adults in Sussex & Kent. It was also played in the continent of North America, as it spread far and wide through the English colonies. It moved down to West Indies in the 18th century and to New Zealand and South Africa in the 19th century. The speed with which it spread, no doubt shows how far popular and accepted it was.

A Brief History History Of Chocolate

Trust me, real chocolate truffles doesn't contain vegetable oil.

Why do cheap chocolate truffles contain vegetable oil?

Because some firms don't give a monkeys about taste, and really only care about costs. They want to sell to you the cheapest chocolates they can at the most expensive price they can.

Vegetable oil is used in place of cocoa butter - which is naturally found in real chocolate. The extra large chocolate conglomerate company, inc will have worked out that they can strip cocoa butter from chocolate, and sell that for use in cosmetics and face treatments at 4 or 5 times the price of the cheap oil they put back in the chocolate. So removing cocoa butter and replacing with vegetable oil is just a way to get more money for these big companies. Do chocolate truffles taste better with vegetable oil in? (I'll leave that to your taste buds to answer) if you aren't sure, then stir a teaspoon of vegetable oil into a bowl of cocoa Taste nice? I doubt it.

Why do fresh, handmade chocolate truffles taste so good?

Handmade chocolates taste nicer because there is less inside them, and less is better. For a similar comparison, try a Victoria sponge, freshly made by your gran that came out of the kitchen a few hours ago, and compare that with a cake you purchased from a supermarket - like the ones that come out of a box, with horrible packaging inside, and a list of ingredients longer than the bible. I've never found a food which tastes better with lots of preservatives in, and I doubt you will - nothing can beat home-made fresh food, and I really want you to find the best of any food you find - be that bread, cakes, doughnuts or chocolates.

There are lots of extremely friendly chocolatiers in London, who make tasty chocolate truffles. A minority of them put that extra bit of tender love and care in, and only make hand made chocolates. Others go even further and refuse to put any artificial preservatives in.  


Unless you've treated yourself to fresh, handmade chocolate truffles , you won't quite believe the difference. chocolates made by hand mean they've had that extra bit of tender love and care put in. They are not processed buy a machine the size of a lorry, but slowly made by a trained oompa loompa's hands, caring about each and every chocolate truffle that is made.

He was trained in the art of chocolate making by his parents at the young age of 14. Today, 60 years later, the Bernachon factory is still famous for its delicious chocolate.

In 1660, a Frenchman named Debauve was dubbed the first "Royal Chocolate Maker", by King Louis the 14th of France after he had received a wedding gift of chocolate from his wife Marie Therese. In 1800, approximately a century and ½ later, one of his descendents named Sulpice Debauve established a chocolate shop in Paris.

His chocolate was so revered that he was able to open additional shops and had established 60 of them by 1804. He had a nephew named Antoine Gallais, who partnered up with him in 1823 and the name of his shops changed to Debauve and Gaillais.

Tips To Buy Santa Costume

Santa costumes are the very famous entertaining time. That is chiefly credited to the full of fun outfit worn out by people and costumes festivity that has been supposed. That is the lone point of time to facilitate one that would totally common. The most general is the Greek style of dress. Because of that is both fascinating as well as straightforward to achieve.
There are lots of dissimilar letters that one could be for Halloween, like letters from myths and antique history. With plus size costume and toddler costume, attractive a superman mass has become just dress away. Somebody may carry Batman through novel life plus everyone it take a good spiderman costume, dance costume that would instantaneously convert one into a superhero. If someone is getting-together in costumes parties, increase your self-reliance by soaring into single. Somebody will be certainly hypnotize everybody public will may be assume they have dreams because of an santa costume have an exclusive approach of translate conservative looks into amazing looks.
These santa costumes come in different styles and a range of style to go well with accordance of age, persona, and selection. As well as above, spiderman costume, dance costume can use in favour of the every year Halloween traps or treat, however females loving to have play dress up. And now Santa dress move towards in the conformist red and white conversely they move towards in pink colour also. They can be move towards in deluxe red velvet, by means of phony white fur smart silk apron plus tie trim that also come by an attractive red wipe up cap. Someone just require a white wig plus someone would looks like the genuine agreement. One could obtain a cheeky one that come in red velveteen spiderman costume, dance costume which is relatively short, That also have the fake white fur tidy and thick black belt, just find yourself . At the present time, the more fashionable as well as legitimate Halloween Teen Dress are encouraged with the Hollywood celebrity otherwise through famed political citizens.
In that year santa costume top, get a big achievement, the dress are influence with the Hollywood chartbuster as well as with the Disney delightful stories and also animation chain series. Spiderman costume, dance costume predicts functions forever that they could grace with the presence to. This party can be means of enjoyable as well as enthusiasm for teenfs costumes. Halloween is a flavour in which much costumes party are supposed. There are many of these moments that can be take place.

Find More Costume History Articles

Spiderman Costumes Hit the Headlines

Is there no end to Spiderman's popularity? The answer is a resounding "no". Spiderman is one of those timeless classic superheroes which appeal to young and old alike, with Spiderman costumes continuing to be top sellers for fancy dress retailers. Spiderman costumes are available in both adult and child sizes and range from the classic red Spiderman, to the new black Spiderman "Venom" costume. Accessories include red or black gloves and boot covers with the classic webbing pattern printed on them. A plethora of Spiderman toys, games, wallpaper, bed linen, lamps, lunch boxes and memorabilia is also widely available.

A fourth installment of the big-screen version of the comic book is due to be released in 2011, with the film's producers promising many more Spiderman films to follow. It has been established that Spider-Man 1 and Spider-Man 2 are among the top twenty biggest grossing films of all time in the world, so why stop at number four? It obviously makes sense to stick with a winning formula.

Even a lavish musical based on the superhero is being planned, entitled "Spider-Man: Turn Off The Dark" which will be reportedly the most expensive production in Broadway history. Featuring songs from U2, the musical is sure to be a great hit.

Now it even seems that Spiderman can also take the credit for a real-life rescue. A Bangkok fireman dressed in a Spiderman costume rescued an eight-year-old autistic boy who had climbed out of a third-floor classroom window. Efforts by the teachers to coax the child back inside had failed and a chance remark by the boy's mother regarding his passion for Spiderman prompted one fire fighter - a fellow Spiderman fan - to rush back to the fire station where he just happened to keep his Spiderman costume in his locker! It was reported that when the child saw the fireman in his Spiderman costume, the boy smiled and promptly threw himself in his superhero's arms.

Apparently, the fireman keeps his Spiderman costume in his locker to liven up fire drills in schools. Well, that's his excuse anyway!

Spiderman also hit the Israeli news headlines this year, when it was reported that Highway police were called to apprehend a man in a Spiderman costume, who was startling commuters by throwing ropes at their vehicles (presumably improvised "web-shooters") and jumping on top of cars. The would-be superhero was arrested and, while under investigation, told police he had woken up in hospital wearing the Spiderman costume, with no recollection of how he came to be dressed in it or why he was there. Unsurprisingly, doctors were summoned to assess the man's mental health.

Milan's Greatest Points: History, Fashion, And Cuisine

Traveling to Milan can be quite a unique experience, as this city is like no other in Europe, and maybe throughout the world.

Within Italy Milan is the second largest city, but as far as wealth is concerned it is number one and Milan is considered the capital of international fashion.

People that know Italy and its cities well say that Milan is a mix of cultural Rome and romantic Venice, but it is not tourism that makes Milan rich.

Many important companies have their headquarters in the fashion city and the country's stock exchange is also housed in Milan. Because tourism is not the most important source of income most tourists feel less pressured to spend money and there is a more laidback atmosphere for those who do visit.

Among the best tourist attractions in Milan are the La Scala Opera House, the city's Cathedral, and the famous wall painting "The Last Supper" signed by Leonardo da Vinci that covers an entire wall inside the Santa Maria delle Grazie monastery. Also, you should see the Castello Sforzesco.

Given Milan is the capital of fashion, you also should check out the brand designers' stores that include many prominent brands such as Versace, Prada, Armani, Gucci, or Dolce and Gabbana.

You should not let yourself get taken aback by the expensive prices that come attached to many of these fashionable creations, however, because of Milan's experience in fashion and design there are still great perks to enjoy that are more budget friendly. For instance, if you cannot afford a brand new bag or scarf, you can walk to the Golden Square and take your pick on the bargain deals for last year's models as well as second hand items that are still in fashion. Additionally, there are many other new designers that try to strike it big in Milan and their creative pieces do not come at the same prohibitive prices as the items from big name houses of fashion.

Milan is more than just fashionable shopping, it is also a great place to relax. Navigli is the place to be and chilling in one of the many cafes spread throughout the Canal side is a great way to enjoy the scenery while sipping a cup of exquisite beverage.

Making food and eating it are as important as the great arts in Italy. Do not be surprised to see Italians spend their evening in restaurants enjoying some of the most palatable meals served in the entire universe. Milan is reputed for its seafood and for its ice-cream, so be sure to try a little bit of everything.

If you want to travel to Milan when the place is not that overcrowded, August is the best month to book your flight ticket. Still, be aware that this month can be particularly hot, which is why most travelers prefer other times of the year to come here.

Related Fashion History Articles

Cosmetic Surgery Finance - Easy Cosmetic Surgery Loans

To have a face which is attractive, beautiful and blemishes free is everybody's dream. For those people with faces full of blemishes and spots, it becomes a nightmare anytime they are invited anywhere new or they meet someone new. Their confidence is usually all down. This should no longer be a big issue as with the advancement of technology a lot of many miraculous surgeries has been done to restore hope and confidence to them. Cosmetic surgery has really done wonders to today's people but one demerit about it is that, it is expensive. Most salaried people often find it difficulty going for cosmetic surgery due to lack of finances. With the establishment of cosmetic surgery loans by the lenders, accessing money for this type of a surgery is no longer a hurdle.

Cosmetic Surgery Loans enables borrowers who can't afford the surgery expenses to go for cosmetic operation hassle free.

They can easily apply for the loans online with the ease of a click of a button. All that is required of you is to fill in the simple online form provided by the lenders for the loan to materialize. You apply for the loan and in less than twenty four hours after application, it is approved. The loan is free from credit check, so even those people with bad credit history can apply and get approved. Usually no collateral is required in order for the loans to be availed to the applicant. These loans are designed to provide you with all the money you need before and after your cosmetic surgery has been performed.

The loan availed ranges from £1,000 to £20,000 and it can be repaid in a duration of up to five years.

To get the loans approved and availed to you quickly, they are some requirements the borrower must fulfill.

These are:

* The applicant must be an UK citizen who is over 18 years of age or above.
* The applicant must provide proof that they will be able to repay the loan amount by providing the necessary support documents.
* They must be in a regular employment and are earning a steady salary of not less than £ 1,000.
* The borrower must possess a valid and active checking account in which the loan amount will be transferred into.

The major hindrance about cosmetic surgery loans is that they are expensive thus they attract a very high rate of interest as compared to regular loans. So before you decide on one particular lender, do some basic research to identify the ones offering you with the best loan deal. Once the loan is advanced to you, pay back the installments on time to ensure that your credit record is clean. In so doing, you ensure that there is no build up of debts for you.

There are two types of Cosmetic loans available, Unsecured and Secured. For secured the borrower must provide the lender with any form of a security or a pledge against the loan. With unsecured the loan is availed without any form of a collateral. To go for secured or unsecured is the borrower's choice.

Related Cosmetic History Articles

Mint Cosmetics UK

One's teeth Whitening Gel from Mint Cosmetics UK can be a uniquely formulated home teeth whitener that provides considerably quicker results than other teeth bleaching goods that we have reviewed. The whole set is sold with easy-to-use self-moulding fits as well as a full DVD instruction manual so you usually do not miss the opportunity quite instructions.

The initial formula utilized in the Mint Cosmetics Carbamide peroxide gel containing active peroxide ingredients makes sure that your teeth isn't only whiter by several shades but also makes certain that they do not lose sensitivity.

There exists a new whitening teeth kit unveiled in britain market called ‘Mint Cosmetics' the quite different all the opposite products available on the market. The gap in the rate of which you can find results.

I've just became hold of the Mint Whitening teeth Kit and that i desired to supply you with the low down on what it really does, how it comes even close to your competition and just what makes this dissimilar to every one of the others.

After this review you'll know everything you need to to produce an educated decision to buy…or vanish.

The visible difference relating to the 2 products besides price and affordable could be the gel. Dental White uses conventional Carbamide Peroxide whilst Mint Cosmetics uses Field have realized.

Teeth whitening gel has been the gel of choice for many years as it is highly effective and gives resilient results. Know alternatively just isn't as effective as Teeth whitening gel, the results also do not last as long. It is because whilst Teeth whitening gel bleaches the stains, those who are merely behaves as a scrubbing/cleaning agent.

How Safe Are They?

Mint Cosmetics uses Approved by the fda gels, which means that merely the kind of gel used is approved by the Food & Drug Administration of America. With Dental White it does not take actual gel itself that is not only approved by the FDA but certified as 100% safe.

The FDA actually look at the factory where Dental White is made, they inspect the gel as well as the whole manufacturing process and issue a safety certificate every 2 years. Dental White may be the only kit in the world containing and displays this certificate on its websites. The gel is additionally manufactured with a Leading American Dentist, Dr George Madray.

What's the History behind the kits?

Order NowDental White was the initial ever massed produced home teeth whitening kit and contains sold millions around the world during the last 22 years since its launch, it has a proven track record both for safety and effectiveness. Mint Cosmetics is a reasonably new product.

Dental White 's also got numerous TV & Magazine appearance, it's got even featured numerous times for the Oprah Show. Mint Cosmetics did until very recently sell only Hydrogen Peroxide based kits, indeed they still do outside the UK/EU on the other hand know kit doesn't have any history or pr associated with its effectiveness.

It must be noted that Dentists have no intends to use sodium bicarbonate to whiten the teeth of patients, you will find there's great cause of this fact.

Find More Cosmetic History Articles

Silver's History

Silver has been man's attraction for many thousands of years. Silver was found by the ancient Civilizations from the earth Surface and beneath. They used this metal to make different art effects religious items and forms of jewelry. Sliver got its popularity very quickly and soon became a medium of exchange among the Traders and the Common People. The Trading for silver started as early as 700 B.C by the people of the Mesopotamian Civilization.

Silver gained a very important position in the United States Monetary System, when it was introduced to make Coins in 1792.Silver was used to produce the coins in the U.S until 1965 when it was no more continued. Silver was introduces to the Industries in the early 20th century as a form of raw material.

Presently both domestic and industrial field uses silver widely. Commercial and domestic products of different types were produced from silver.

Silver is used from electronics to jewelry. Silver is a mode of investment too, for many people. People in some countries like India, buy Silver as good fortune.

Silver is found in plenty and is less expensive, compared to other precious metals like the gold or the platinum. Peru, Mexico, China, Australia and Chile are the words largest producers of Silver. Silver is mined directly for the use as silver, or silver is mined as a byproduct of gold, copper, lead and zinc mining, and silver is also used in photographic materials for developing pictures. The largest silver producing countries up to the year 2006 are:

1. Peru about 111.6 million ounces.

2. Mexico about 96.4 million ounces.

3. China about 75.4 million ounces.

4. Australia about 55.6 million ounces.


Chile about 51.5 million ounces.

In ancient times next to Gold silver was considered as a sacred metal, and there were restrictions on its use. Silver due to its ductility, was mainly used to produce ornaments and jewelry in the ancient times, it was also used to produce utensils and other house hold items. At Present time silver widely used in the electronics industry as it is a good conductor of electricity. Silver can be found in many electronic items. Even today gifts of silver are given as a symbol, of trust, love, and wisdom in many cultures of different countries.

Short Description: The history of silver takes us back to the Mesopotamian Civilization in 700 B.C. From then it has been used by man for making different items for both commercial and house hold purposes.

More Drees History Articles

History Of Fashion

Fashion is something we deal with everyday. Even people who say they don't care what they wear choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day.

One certain thing in the fashion world is change. We are constantly being bombarded with new fashion ideas from music, videos, books, and television. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. Ray-Ban sold more sunglasses after the movie Men In Black. Sometimes a trend is world-wide. Back in the 1950s, teenagers everywhere dressed like Elvis Presley.

Who dictates fashion?

Musicians and other cultural icons have always influenced what we're wearing, but so have political figures and royalty. Newspapers and magazines report on what Hillary Clinton wears. The recent death of Diana, the Princess of Wales, was a severe blow to the high fashion world, where her clothes were daily news.

Even folks in the 1700s pored over fashion magazines to see the latest styles. Women and dressmakers outside the French court relied on sketches to see what was going on. The famous French King Louis XIV said that fashion is a mirror. Louis himself was renowned for his style, which tended towards extravagant laces and velvets.

Clothes separate people into groups.

Fashion is revealing. Clothes reveal what groups people are in. In high school, groups have names: "goths, skaters, preps, herbs." Styles show who you are, but they also create stereotypes and distance between groups. For instance, a businessman might look at a boy with green hair and multiple piercings as a freak and outsider. But to another person, the boy is a strict conformist. He dresses a certain way to deliver the message of rebellion and separation, but within that group, the look is uniform. Acceptance or rejection of a style is a reaction to the society we live in.

Fashion is a language which tells a story about the person who wears it. "Clothes create a wordless means of communication that we all understand," according to Katherine Hamnett, a top British fashion designer. Hamnett became popular when her t-shirts with large messages like "Choose Life" were worn by several rock bands.