The History Of Mdvanii Fashion Dolls

Generally created as a fashion doll catered to the adult art enthusiasts, the Mdvanii dolls debuted in London on February 14, 1989. The 25-centimeter doll made of hard resin was created by designers and artists BillyBoy and his life partner Jean Pierre Lestrade who is also known as Lala. It was the first anatomically-correct fashion doll yet the characters are based on a more adult storyline which verges on homosexuality and bi-sexuality. The creation of this doll was fostered by BillBoy’s fascination of antique French fashion and Kamkins dolls that were made by Louise Kampes. He got into the hobby of collecting dolls due to his love of vintage fashion dolls of the early 1970s. He even created dresses and repaints for Barbie dolls when he was a teenager.

In 1983, Mattel got in touch with BillyBoy and asked him to create a line for Barbie with his designs.

Mattel then launched the first ever designer series with the designer’s name on the box and it was called “Nouveau Theatre de la Mode Barbie”. His second collaboration with Mattel came up with the series that was entitled “Feelin’ Groovy Barbie” which was launched in 1986.

The Mdvanii dolls originally wore clothes that was tailored with French haute couture and were also originally made in France. Yet in 1997, the clothes were already made in Switzerland. The first doll collection was launched at Liberty & Co. which is a popular department store in London with the blessing of the store’s head fashion accessories buyer Carol Lister and the store’s owner, Richard Stewart Liberty.

The dolls were made in limited numbers and there was an exclusive edition made for F.A.O Schwarz.

The dolls were then introduced in New York where its exquisitely adorned masterpieces were priced from ,000 to a whopping 10,000. Furthermore, 10 doll houses were made which cost ,000 each. In 1993, BillyBoy ventured into creating porcelain Mdvanii dolls instead of its original resin material. The first porcelain collection of Mdvanii and her friends was made of 15 characters and all were handcrafted in France.

Today, there are several Mdvanii dolls which are included in museum display such as in Musee de Louvre, Musee de la Mode et du Textile, Victoria and Albert Museum and New York City’s Metropolitan Museum of Art. And for Mdvanii fanatics, creations made by other artists who take inspiration of BillBoy’s creation call their art work as “Mdvaniiism” which was believed to describe pieces that evokes glamour through the concept of Mdvanii . Even some dolls also sport a stamp that could say “Mdvaniiism de BillyBoy & Lala, “This Is A Work Of Art”, or Manifesto Mdvaniiism de BillyBoy & Lala”.

Lacoste "?" History Of The Fashion Brand

It was during that tournament Rene Lacoste struck a wager with his captain that if he won that important match for France, his captain would have to buy him a suitcase created out of alligator skin. As it happened, the match was won and Rene Lacoste was dubbed by media as well as the press at that time as the Alligator. His close friend, Robert George took the opportunity to sketch a tiny alligator which was then embroidered on Renes blazer. That was the start of the alligator brand named Lacoste and the alligator has not looked back since.

Rene and Andre Gillier in 1933 then decided to join hands to set up a company. Andre Gillier, by virtue of running a highly successful French knitwear firm, had the expertise and he had in Rene the right brand ambassador to further the already well known alligator brand. Both wanted to leverage the unique design for use in shirts for sports like tennis, golf, sailing and others. In fact they released the first collection in 1933 itself.

After that, the ride has been pretty smooth for the brand as it replaced sports shirts made of woven fabric and also extended its product range to include fragrances and colognes. Some of the popular ones were Cool Play Cologne, Lacoste Hot Play Cologne, Lacoste Pour Homme Cologne, Booster Cologne and many other such fragrances.

The brand then made its foray into footwear, socks and belts. By now people were pretty conversant and confident about the quality of the brand and took to these products with great enthusiasm. The brand was also greatly helped by prominent sports personalities like Andy Roddick and many others.

Indeed, very few brands have stood the test of time for so long and kept gaining in popularity even as competition kept increasing. It is a tribute to the high standards of quality and consistency of Lacoste that it has continued to elicit interest and brand loyalty from its many fans all over the world.

Semen, Mercury, & Bird Droppings = A History of Cosmetics

The history of cosmetics isn't something to read your kids to sleep with. You don't want to talk about the days of ancient Egypt when makeup was lead-lined, mercury-filled, and semen was applied as a skin treatment! The sight of ruined and cancerous faces with drops of seminal fluid dripping down them isn't something to inspire faith with skin care manufacturers and the cosmetic industry.
Then came bird-droppings on Japanese Geishas, burned-matches for mascara among England's upper-class, shaved eyebrows tattooed back on among female Chinese nobles, and hot combs to straighten Black women's hair here in America. These are but a few of the harsh methods undertaken for the unreachable, nigh impossible to achieve standards of beauty that have plagued women since before the ancient Greek sculptures of Aphrodite.
These days our concerns about cosmetic ingredients have moved from synthetics to organics, from petroleum to castor oil, and from whale blubber to crushed insects.

The debates rages around what our cosmetics and skin care products are made of, as different sides emerge like waves to pummel the shoreline of beauty standards in this country.
Do they test on animals? Do they use organic ingredients? Are they sustainable? Is it safe? The public chamber echoes this same sentiment: people are scared of what they're putting on their skin and on their face.
But let the profits speak for themselves. We're still using cosmetics. A recent study shows the cosmetic industry is fairly recession proof. We hope or maybe we just ignore the reality of our small space in the consumer world - that we are powerless.
Except we're not. To combat cosmetics companies who sell unsafe products our only recourse is to educate ourselves about what we buy, what we use, and how. Knowing is the only way to deal with not-knowing (which is what we're really afraid of - the unknown). Pressure cosmetic companies to seek out natural skin care manufacturers organic ingredients. Check for reports on safe cosmetics.
Become that person at in the market who obsessively checked the labels. Become the annoying customer who asks many questions about a store's products. Demand more for what you pay. As consumers we're only treated as well as we ask for, and it's naïve to expect any different.

Evesham's History

Eveham is a place with lots of rich stories which you would not want to miss at the local pub. This town has seen so many things, from disputes, battles to disasters.


Evesham was the home of one of the worst battles to take place the Battle of Evesham. This battle is still talked about between many historians to this day. Some claim it may have been one of the worst battles of that time.


The Abby is actually part of a historical quirk. Evesham sits in the middle of a river loop. The city of Bengeworth sits on the other side of the river. During a battle, for the castle that is split by this river some of the knights got drunk. During this drunken spree, the knights damaged a couple of gravesites on the other side.


This gave the monks living in the Abby a reason to defend them.

In the process of all of this, the castle was leveled. To this day, you can still see the after effects of this battle when you look at the layout of shops and streets.


The town has also seen its share of natural disaster. In 1998, the town was hit hard by the floods that came because of the River Avon overflowing its banks. Homes were swept away like a house of cards, which caused concern about the integrity of the Workman Bridge. Officials were worried with all of the homes becoming wedged in the bridges arches that the bridge would fail. In 2007 the town was hit hard again by record flooding. This time the flooding was even worse than it was nine years earlier. Through all of this, the town continues to thrive and prosper. It even in the last few years has started to become a visitor hot spot for foreign tourist.


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Gundam Felt Grace Cosplay Costume

Make you the same as Felt Grace in this Gundam cosplay costume for cosplay show. cosplay costume
As element of the theme preferred by director Yoshinori Kitase to provide the meet a overseas atmosphere, different styles experienced been offered to its areas making utilization of the design of internationally common places, even although also preserving a fantasy atmosphere. Inspiration ranged from historical Egyptian and Greek architecture, using the city of Paris, France, kagamine rin to an idealized futuristic European society. Flags experienced been also offered to some factions, their styles centered inside the group's history and culture.In contrast, in an job interview using the standard british PlayStation Magazine, final fantasy cosplay Kitase stated that Triple Triad was additional using the meet using the reason that credit worthiness cards experienced been a common pastime in Japan.

In an job interview with Famitsu, art work director Yusuke Naora described how the meet was regularly designed getting a "bright, fresh new last Fantasy." The designers felt a should invert the atmosphere of earlier film games inside the series, which experienced feelings of "light emerging from darkness". Final Fantasy VIII This choice was straightforward using the developers to make, using the reason that the majority of them experienced worked on last Fantasy VII and felt that the brand brand new path was acceptable.The planet styles experienced been also designed using the information that most in the staff members experienced been now employed to individual computer graphics, which was not the circumstance with last Fantasy VII.The developers also noted that with last Fantasy VIII, they attempted to "mix future, genuine lifestyle and fantasy.
The 6 key playable characters in last Fantasy VIII are Squall Leonhart, a loner who keeps his concentrate on his duty to steer obvious of vulnerability; vocaloid cosplay Rinoa Heartilly, an outspoken and passionate youthful lady who follows her center in all situations; Quistis Trepe, an instructor using a serious, customer attitude; Zell Dincht, a martial artist using a interest for warm dogs; Selphie Tilmitt, a cheerful woman who loves trains and pilots the airship Ragnarok; and Irvine Kinneas, a marksman and consummate ladies' man. Temporarily playable characters consist of Laguna Loire, Kiros Seagill, and Ward Zabac, Devil May Cry cosplay who appear in "flashback" sequences, and antagonists Seifer Almasy and Edea Kramer.

Subaru History

Subaru is a Japanese automobile manufacture, a subdivision of the Fuji Heavy Industries. Fuji Heavy Industries is currently partnered with Toyota Motors who own sixteen and a half percentage of the group. Subaru is well known for its four wheel drive cars as well as high performance turbo charged cars, some of which have competed in motorsports such as the Subaru Impreza WRX. Subaru are distinctive in the fact they use flat engines in all of their vehicles, an engine which uses multiple pistons which all move on a flat horizontal plan of motion. The flat engine was patented by Karl Benz.

Initially formed in nineteen seventy one, the group began as an aircraft research facility. Fifteen years later the company became the Nakajima Aircraft Company and manufactured Japanese aircraft during the Second World War. The end of the war saw another change to the company, this time renaming itself Fugi Sangyo Co, which later added a motor scooter division to its group.

The group was dismantled in the early fifties, with the four of these newly formed corporations to merge and become the Fuji Heavy Industries as it is today.

The head of the group sought to bring in a car manufacturing division to the company. Initially penned as being called P-1 after the devolvement of the first car which shares the same name, the final name was Subaru, chosen by the CEO K Kita. The P-1 or Subaru 1500 as it was known was only manufactured in very small numbers due to supply problems. Over the company's lifespan many cars have produced, with its modern cars all being four wheel drive.

Chucky And Mens Halloween Costumes

He may not be the biggest, bloodiest, or most intimidating horror movie villain, but Chucky the doll has still traumatized millions of movie-goers with just a few words.

"Hi, I'm Chucky. Wanna play?"

Two decades of children have lived in fear of those words. Two decades have seen him slice through everything from movies to haunted houses to Halloween outfits.

With red hair, blue overalls, and tiny little sneakers, Chucky could be a remnant from any toy chest, a piece of history from any childhood playtime... except games have always been the last thing on his agenda.

Originally released in 1988, "Child's Play" was conceived as a psychological thriller rather than a slasher flick. Writer/director Don Mancini wanted to examine the effects of advertising and commercialism on young children, with Chucky - a young boy's doll - serving as a focal point for the world's wicked ways.

In the film, Chucky is gifted to Andy, a lonely six year old.

Then Andy's caretakers start dying one by one. Despite Chucky's bloody legacy, the first film plays coy with his true nature; he isn't seen killing anyone until well into the movie, leading audiences to wonder if Andy himself is the culprit.

These days, of course, the idea that Chucky is "just a doll" is laughable. More than a character or a message, he's a brand in his own right. "Child's Play" has spawned countless sequels, spinoffs, games, toys, and Halloween outfits, each bloodier and more memorable than the last. Chucky stands at the helm of his own empire.

Ironically, Macini's warning against consumerism has become a consumer's dream. With countless Halloween outfits and Chucky dolls.

So what can you take from mens Halloween costumes built around Chucky? For one, you won't have to worry about being recognized. Chucky is one of the most iconic figures of his time, still famous after twenty years and a half-dozen sequels. You'll also be drawing on nostalgia - everyone has childhood memories (and nightmares) of Chucky.

Most importantly, Chucky is *scary*. He's a twisted horror of what should be untouchable - a corruption of youth and innocence that goes beyond Hollywood movie magic. By choosing to dress as Chucky, you'll be striking at deeper fear than just ghosts and spooky masks.

Chucky also makes a great choice for mens Halloween costumes. There aren't a lot of options for guys who like dressing up, but Chucky himself is male, and even the funny parts of his outfit - the wig, the overalls - aren't quite as amusing when they're covered in blood. You won't be laughed at in a Chucky costume.

This October, choose Chucky if you really want to make a statement. He's famous, he's frightening, and wearing his face is guaranteed to inspire both fear and conversation. There aren't many Halloween outfits more memorable than the one with a body count spanning two decades.

Mens Halloween costumes are difficult, but choosing Chucky is so easy it's almost... well... child's play.

Military History

By the term military history we mean discipline of humanity within scope regarding normal recordings of history of the armed battle in humanities history as well its effect on society, as well as on societies economies, culture as well as changing relationships both international and within the country.

Affairs of military have been focused, by the historians who are professional, which had vast impact upon societies that were involved along with the conflict's aftermath. In contrary to this unprofessional or unskilled hobbyists and historians usually take lot of interest to larger extent in details regarding battle, uniforms and equipments that were used.

The important subject in the study of the military history are reasons of the battle, cultural and social foundations, logistics, doctrine of military on both side, leadership, strategy, tactics as well as tactics that were used during war and also how all of these have come across many changes with the passage of time.

As this field is applied-field, many schools and academies providing services teaches the military history because command of military wants and seeks that the mistakes that were done in the past should not be repeated again.

They focus on the improvement of present performances through inculcating abilities in the commanders for perceiving parallels of history during the war in order to take the advantage on past lessons which were learned.

Military's discipline is said to be very dynamic which changes with the development because organizations and societies are using it.

Military history's discipline's this nature i.e. dynamic one is very much related with speed of the change military-forces as well as science and art to manage them and is related with technological-development's frenetic-pace which took place in that period called as Industrial-Revolution as well as recently during information and nuclear ages.

The most important concept in current period is RMA – Revolution-in-Military-Affairs that explains how the warfare was shaped up by rising new technologies like gunpowder. RMA also highlights upon small changes have been brought in accordance with current stability.

The invention of new arms has the capacity in altering the scenario of the war dramatically. The technologies and types of military-units that were produced during war of ancient period are:


The technologies and types of military-units that were produced during medieval time are:

Crossbow etc.

Moncler's history

Moncler has a long history, it has been established and its products are well welcomed by many people over the world. Under no circumstances, however, people often use the time to stop recording technology, and the last to stay out of the track and the actual type of the value of the home. Moncler if it is a label, so the result is the highest mountain top, you heat the entire fashion metropolis on the road. offers a way to heat and maintain the sleek lines around together!

Moncler's history dates back to 1952 when they began to produce a technical mountain sports gear. They say his first down jacket was born when Moncler factory workers turned them into his own conduct during the colder months. The original creator of the pre-filled jacket, Moncler has a stylish skiwear their raison DETR since 1952. Familiar Moncler jackets sale store.To follow the trend is the current trend.

Just one name springs into one's mind and that is the name of moncler men's coats fashion suppliers in terms of taste. Today, nobody wishes to be the odd one from the crowd. One is able to be the focus of the town with trendy apparel and garnishes. Moncler women's coats are well-known nearly everywhere. The high quality they offer in their jackets and goods is matchless and has been reliable from years. They supply men with the greatest leather and fur jackets.

 It gives you enjoyment to know that the thing upon which you have spent your money was it and this is the case as you get an Ed hardy clothing jacket as it is worth the cost. Fall is fast approaching and a good wardrobe full of coats and jackets is a must for keeping warm and protecting. Moncler jackets outlet from harsh weather conditions this season.

Different coats and jackets have different designs and functions, so are sure to pick one that moncler ebay shows individual style and can be used for utility. Whether you need to dress for the office, a night out on the town or just an everyday jacket, there is a perfect option for every occasion. A mens leather jackets is a conservative look that is both stylish and functional. Not only is it insulated with cotton and polyester, but most come in neutral colors that can be used with different outfits. Although these coats are more expensive than the bomber jackets and windbreakers, they are a good investment since you can keep them for years. A kid's clothes trench coat that hits the knees is perfect for covering suits, while trenches made of twill are great for casual looks.

Moncler down jackets are great option for everyday wear. Bomber jackets are usually made of leather and suede, with a fleece or polyester lining for insulation. Many of them also water repellent and include pockets to keep your hands warm and store personal items. If weather is your main concern, moncler women's vests are an ideal choice. Windbreakers are thin lightweight outerwear jackets that are meant for resisting wind and rain. These moncler men's coats are thinner than bomber jackets, but come equipped with adjustable hoods and fitted waistbands and cuffs. A winter wardrobe for a man seems incomplete without a coat.In combination with the round style snap collar, it gives the moncler jacken a futuristic appearance. Lightweight jackets provide comfort and warmth in chilly weather and also make fashion statements. There are those that resemble a classic style of jacket for riding and those that have a bomber jacket design.

 Fashion changes every season but introducing something odd will be considered a fashion faux and nothing more. Therefore, be careful of the type of fashion that you adopt and buy a Moncler women jacket since it has improved variety and this is proved by the popularity that it has gained. These jackets are something out of the ordinary and when you find a jacket that fits you and your style, you will be warm in the freezing winter all the while, looking stylish as well.

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The Incredible Hulk Costumes

The Incredible Hulk is one of the most popular comic book superheroes in history. Hulk's green skin, huge muscles, and purple pants are recognized around the world. And his story of being a regular Joe who transforms into a hero with virtually unlimited strength resonates with millions. I mean,who wouldn't love to have to have the power to pick up a tank or to jump 20 miles?

Hulk costume is paddled with big and strong muscle. It comes with ripped pants and torn shirt. This costume may look elaborate but it is actually very comfortable. When wearing the costume, both your upper body and lower can be moved easily as if it is part of you.

Incredible Hulk - Hulk Super Deluxe Costume (Men's Adult Costume)
,257.41 (Retail ,616.67)
Incredible Hulk - Hulk Super Deluxe Costume (Men's Adult Regular Size)

This Halloween, show them a side of you they have never seen in this adult Incredible Hulk costume.

It features a green headpiece with black hair, eyebrows and a large forehead. It matches the green, polyester jumpsuit that has purple, shredded pants attached. The upper arms and chest are filled with padding for muscular definition and add intimidation to this authentic costume. Complete your "incredible" look by adding the green makeup kit for an authentic costume.

"Don't make me angry. You wouldn't like me when I'm angry." Turn from mild mannered Bruce Banner into the green, mean fighting machine with this Incredible Hulk costume. The green polyester body suit has bulging muscular padding for a genuine Hulk appearance. Plus, torn purple pants come attached to the suit. A headpiece with black hair, eyebrows and massive green forehead is also included. Don't forget to purchase green makeup to complete the look.
Kids Costumes - HULK BUNTING 0-6 MTHS
.95 (Retail .85)
Character bunting with soft cap. Fits 0-6 months.

Whatever you decide, have a safe and happy Halloween!

This character has been in existence for several decades already and its popularity has not waned out. Kids now and their parents know who the Hulk is. Their friends and their friends' parents know him too. This just proves the character's popularity, and this is a sign that buying a Hulk costume for your child may just prove to be a good idea.

Trick or treat! Details for Incredible Hulk Kids costume for Halloween 2010: You will be a hit at the Halloween party in this children's Incredible Hulk Halloween costume. Don't destroy too many things in this Kids Incredible Hulk Halloween costume. Get this Incredible Hulk Kids Halloween costume before they are sold out. This Incredible Hulk children's Halloween costume includes: green muscle bodysuit with attached purple shredded pants and mask.

Kids Costumes - HULK STANDARD CHILD 7-10
.95 (Retail .06)
Includes: green bodysuit with shredded white shirt & purple pants and character mask. Available in child size: 7-8

The Incredible Hulk costumes for children are not as expensive as Incredible Hulk costumes for adult. There are many styles and designs to choose from. Incredible Hulk costumes for children usually consist of muscle jumpsuit and character  mask. Great for children who love to dress up as his favorite character and would also make a great gift for someone else is child who love Hulk.

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An Interaction with Renaissance Costumes

Woolen dresses were the major part of clothing during medieval period. Linen was used to make undergarments. Long length of costumes in bright colors designed with embellishing materials like embroideries, jewelries other ornate were the indication of wealth people had. Royals and wealthier people had elaborate and extravagant medieval clothing. Like in modern age, medieval people envied royals and aristocrats for fashion. Noble ladies were the leading trend setter of that time. During late middle ages noble men wore hose and jacket with skirting or pleating or a tunic alongwith surcoat. It was voluminous gowns, attractive headgears for women.

Moralist and the preachers wore long woolen habits. Most of the dresses were to emulate Roman clothing. Even among the monks and nuns it was easier to designate them on the basis of habits’ color.

It was black for Benedictines, white or undyed wool for Cistercians. Monks were allowed to wear linen coifs in order to keep head warm and their clothes were also comfortable and plain. To get permission to wear woolen socks the poor Clare Sisters and nuns had to petition the pope.

Renaissance peasant costumes were far from the richness of wealthy people’s renaissance dresses. Linen, sheepskin, cotton and wool were the fabrics used in making of their costumes. But on late 14th century or in early 15th century cotton too became a luxurious fabric, no longer available to poor people. Because major quantity of cotton were imported (exported from India) thus heavily taxed by the rulers and became out of reach of common and poor people.

Even peasant women wore long gowns with tunics, minus all the shimmering effects which were present in gowns of noble ladies.

Their tunics were sleeveless and use a cloth headdress to cover head called wimple. The common renaissance clothing for peasant men was tunics and stockings. Cloaks of sheepskin, mittens and woolen caps were worn on chilly winter days. Wooden patens were used to cover leather boots to keep feet dry. They seldom laundered outer wears but the inner garments made of linen were washed routinely. It seemed that when they set around fire for warmth, smoke of it permeated into outer garment and acted as deodorant.

In early middle age medieval costumes of women consist of Kirtles, tunics worn to ankles that to worn over a shirt. During their public appearances they wore shorter kirtles. It was obvious that affluent women wore luxurious costume.

During the medieval eras fur was used to line the garments of rich. They especially imported the exotic furs and feathers to decorate their renaissance clothes. Jewelries were grand and lavish. The value of wealthier people’s costume remained constant or even increased because of material used in making so, in harder times wealthier people use these costumes as a source of income or security against loan. The technique of cutting gems was not in its best form thus most of them lacked luster.

The history of beauty products

Annually billions of dollars are spent worldwide on beauty and cosmetic products. I am sure many of us often ask how we got to the point of making use of such products and when did it become standard to have to wake in the morning, bath or shower using soaps and gels, shampoos and conditioners and then before leaving home applying makeup and spraying on perfume and deodorant. Beauty and cosmetic products we know today came about due to thousands of years of mistakes as well as trial and error. Four thousand years ago the Egyptians believed that hygiene was an important aspect of the spirit and personal wellbeing.

The Egyptians were always neat as they were a society that valued their appearance and were also a very creative and inventive culture and they had specific reasons behind the cosmetics and beauty products that were more than just making their appearance more beautiful.

For example the Egyptians original eye shadow, mesdemet was made from a copper derivative and lead ore. These dark shades were used around their eyes to ward off the evil eye and at the same time was an effective bug repellent and disinfectant. They also made use of kohl which was a combination of burnt almonds, copper, ash, lead and ochre to adorn the eyes. They also applied a mixture of red clay and water to their cheeks and painted their nails with a yellow and orange henna chemical. It was well know that the Egyptians bathed in milk and flower essence such as Neroli and others. Many of the ingredients used for their beauty regime proved to be fatal. Greek women also began following the Egyptians cosmetic and beauty rituals and started applying a pale hue that was lead based to their faces which once again proved fatal. Long after the Egyptian empire diminished the Romans began making use of sheep’s heated body fat and blood to paint their nails. A dark tanned skin was associated with being peasants and pale white complexions the wealthy upper class. Men and women used a powder concoction of carbonate, lead oxide and hydroxide which was applied to their skin and faces.

Once again people suffered from lead poisoning. At the turn of the 19th century a chemist developed a zinc oxide combination that was extremely effective and produced creams and rouges. This combination is still used by beauty and cosmetic manufacturers today. Due to the benefactor of these fatal mistakes, there is an unlimited range of beauty and cosmetic products which has become a very competitive billion dollar industry.

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History of Leggings in the Fashion World

Leggings have been worn for many centuries by both men and women. Recent times have however seen them remain fashion attire for just ladies and no longer men. Though some wear them to look fashionable, they also help protect the skin by keeping it warm. Leggings were also used to protect one form getting bitten by insects or animals like ticks. Originally, they were worn in Scotland during the 14th Century all the way to the 16th Centuries. Back then, they were designed as two separate parts for each leg. As they spread to other parts of the world, they changed in their make and their usage. Some were even made from pure leather. Leather leggings were mainly worn by men who were preparing to go out hunting or mountain climbing.

As the years advanced, leggings became a fashionable attire rather than protective clothing. Vegetable tanned leather became the most preferred material for making them; the same that is used even today.

In the 19th Century, leggings became common attire put on by women and young girls. Still, they were made in pair-as two separate parts for each leg. The early 60's-1960 is the era when they hit the stores. These were much tighter than the latter ones and also came as one. The modern leggings were attached at the top like a normal trouser. These are the times that saw them becoming more of a woman's cloth than unisex clothing.

In the 1980's, they became a common clothing to wear for gym sessions and other sporting games. During the 90's, they hit the streets and were being worn with short skirts, dresses, sweaters and huge shirts. Today, they are also worn with shorts. Other than the tight fitting leggings, new designers have tried to replace the older materials with others. Skinny jeans for instance are believed to have borrowed greatly from the latter. Leggings for men got a renaissance in 2007 when they hit the fashion runway scene during the annual Fashion Week. Today, they have become an accepted way of dressing even in the corporate world as an official wear. Being made of varying colors, styles, designs, sizes and stretchable material makes them a cloth for all. However, other than being worn in the gym, today's man is yet to put them on.

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History Of Botox

What makes a person beautiful? What defines beauty? How far is society willing to go to make a person look "beautiful?" It seems tabloids mainly focus on looks, beauty, and fashion in today's society. It is not just a matter of who is who or what they are doing any more.

One of the main focuses is what people look like. When America was labeled as the "fattest" nation in the world, most Americans have converted to living a healthier lifestyle. They have changed eating habits, started to make a conscious effort to exercise, and are also looking to medicine and doctors for a quicker fix for their "trouble areas" that exercise can't fix.

With this new mentality, came the urge to look better on the outside as well as feel healthier on the inside. With medical research on the rise for finding the "miracle" drug to turn back the effects of time, society has embraced the new nonsurgical procedures and benefits of Botulinum Toxin, or Botox.

With just a small injection you can make fine lines around the eyes, mouth, and forehead virtually disappear. With society becoming self conscious about looking good, Botox has become a prime candidate for a quick fix that is easily administered, and has very few side effects. However, caution should be taken as with any drug before running to the doctor for a dose of Botox.

History of Botox and how Botox works

Clostridium botulinum is the bacteria from which we get our abbreviated name Botox. A German physician and poet Justinus Kerner first recognized that this toxin could be a possible candidate in therapeutic applications, calling it "sausage poison." In 1870, Muller (another German physician) laid claim to the name botulism. Then in 1895 Emile Van Ermengem was the first to isolate the bacterium, and in 1944 Edward Schantz cultured Clostridium botulinum and isolated the toxin. And finally in 1949, Burgen's group discovered that botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission. Surprisingly in the 1950s the toxin was used experimentally as a medical cosmetic treatment on politicians, one of which was said to be the actor and one of our United States Presidents, Ronald Regan.

Botox is manufactured by Allergan Inc. in Irvine California, a global pharmaceutical company that specializes in neuromodulator, eye care, and skin care. According to Allergan Inc., it is a powerful poison created by a bacterium called clostridium botulinum. It is possibly the most toxic substance known with a lethal dose of about 100g that could kill every human on earth! The spores of this toxin occur in nature and can be found in practically all of the soil on earth. One wouldn't think that such a poison exists in nature and that it could be so dangerous. The disturbing part is that it is all around us all the time.

This toxin interferes with nerve impulses and weakens or paralyzes the nerves that can cause muscles to contract abnormally for about four to six months. Even though the results do not last years but months, they are so dramatic that it is worth the time and money to get the procedure done regularly. The botulinum toxin that is used in medical practices is purified so it won't cause botulism, which can occur if foods are not preserved or jarred properly and then consumed. According to "Vaccine Weekly," it has been found that the toxin can also be inhaled.

Experiments show that this is a possibility, and that a form of vaccine has been formed to aid in the prevention of such a case.

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The History Of MGA?s Fashion Dolls

One of the popular dolls today is the Bratz dolls that were created by MGA Entertainment.  The line of fashion dolls are characterized by its large heads and slim bodies.  The first dolls that were released in May 2001 were Jade, Cloe, Yasmin, and Sasha.  They are characterized as teenagers who have their own fashion taste.  The dolls were also crafted with almond-shaped eyes and were designed to have plump glossy lips and softly applied make up. 

Today’s Bratz dolls franchise now comes with different lines such as the Bratz Babyz and Bratz Kids.  Although the sales in 2001 did not immediately pick up, the year after that was a different story and the sales went up.  The doll franchise was even recorded to have reached huge sales in 2005 when the global revenue came up to 2 billion dollars.

However, the success was marred by some challenges and controversies.  The dolls have been regarded by the American Psychological Association to be inappropriate to young kids as its skimpy and fashionable clothing connotes sexualization.  The company had also been under a lot of criticisms wherein apparently some people claim that the dolls were manufactured in China with poor labor policies and working conditions.  But the most controversial news regarding the Bratz dolls was the long legal battle with Mattel over the design.  Mattel claimed that former Mattel employee, Carter Bryant, had designed the concept for the Bratz dolls when he was still employed by the company.

It was a long battle with both companies which tackled on stealing trade secrets and copying designs.  But the recent decision made by the federal jury awarded MGA entertainment a verdict that orders Mattel to pay 310 million dollars to MGA.  Yet during the years involved in the long dispute, MGA has continued to create different Bratz doll characters and new lines such as the Bratz Babyz, Bratz Kids, Bratz Lil’ Angelz, Itsy Bitsy Bratz, Bratz Boyz, Bratz Petz, Lil’ Bratz, and Be-Bratz.

Aside from the doll lines, the company also came up with music albums and films for the doll characters.  More new characters were introduced in the TV series and movies although some of the characters introduced in it do not have its doll version.  But kids will find more fun with the dolls and their playsets and accessories.  The Bratz has really reached a huge success that it also came out with its kids clothing line in 2007 which was called the Lil’ Bratz Couture.

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Alternate History


In writing an alternate history, the author makes the conscious choice to change something in our past. According to Steven H Silver, alternate history requires three things: 1) the story must have a point of divergence from the history of our world prior to the time at which the author is writing, 2) a change that would alter history as it is known, and 3) an examination of the ramifications of that change.

Several genres of fiction have been confused as alternate histories. Science fiction set in what was the future but is now the past, like Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: A Space Odyssey or Nineteen Eighty-Four , are not alternate history because the author has not made the conscious choice to change the past. Secret history, works that document things which are not known to have happened historically but would not have changed history had they happened, is also not to be confused with alternate history.

History of alternate history literature

Antiquity and Medieval

The earliest example of an alternate history is Book IX, sections 17-19, of Livy's Ab Urbe condita. Livy contemplated an alternative 4th Century BC in which Alexander the Great expanded his empire westward instead of eastward; Livy asked, "What would have been the results for Rome if she had been engaged in war with Alexander?"

Joanot Martorell's 1490 epic romance Tirant lo Blanc, written when the loss of Constantinople to the Turks was still a recent and traumatic memory to Christian Europe, tells the story of the valiant knight Tirant The White from Brittany who gets to the embattled remnant of the Byzantine Empire, becomes a Megaduke and commander of its armies, and manages to fight off the invading Ottoman armies of Mehmet II, save the city from Islamic conquest, and even chase the Turks deeper into lands they had conquered before.

19th century

One of the earliest works of alternate history published in large quantities for the reception of a popular audience may be the French Louis Geoffroy's Histoire de la Monarchie universelle: Napolon et la conqute du monde (1812-1832) (History of the Universal Monarchy: Napoleon And The Conquest Of The World) (1836), which imagines Napoleon's First French Empire victorious in the French invasion of Russia in 1811 and in an invasion of England in 1814, later unifying the world under Bonaparte's rule.

In the English language, the first known complete alternate history is Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story "P.'s Correspondence", published in 1845. It recounts the tale of a man who is considered "a madman" due to his perceiving a different 1845, a reality in which long-dead famous people are still alive such as the poets Burns, Byron, Shelley, and Keats, the actor Edmund Kean, the British politician George Canning and even Napoleon Bonaparte.

The first novel-length alternate history in English would seem to be Castello Holford's Aristopia (1895). While not as nationalistic as Louis Geoffroy's Napolon et la conqute du monde, 1812-1823, Aristopia is another attempt to portray a utopian society. In Aristopia, the earliest settlers in Virginia discover a reef made of solid gold and are able to build a Utopian society in North America.

Early 20th century and the era of the pulps

A number of alternate history stories and novels appeared in the late 1800s and early 1900s (see, for example, Charles Petrie's If: A Jacobite Fantasy ). In 1931, British historian Sir John Squire collected a series of essays from some of the leading historians of the period in the anthology If It Had Happened Otherwise. In this work, scholars from major universities as well as important non-university-based authors turned their attention to such questions as "If the Moors in Spain Had Won" and "If Louis XVI Had Had an Atom of Firmness". The essays range from serious scholarly efforts to Hendrik Willem van Loon's fanciful and satiric portrayal of an independent 20th century Dutch city state on the island of Manhattan. Among the authors included were Hilaire Belloc, Andr Maurois, and Winston Churchill.

One of the entries in Squire's volume was Churchill's "If Lee Had Not Won the Battle of Gettysburg", written from the viewpoint of a historian in a world where the Confederacy had won the American Civil War, considering what would have happened if the North had been victorious (in other words, a character from an alternate world imagining a world more like the real one we live in, although not necessarily getting all the details right). This kind of speculative work which posts from the point of view of an alternate history is variously known as a "recursive alternate history", a "double-blind what-if" or an "alternate-alternate history".

Another example of alternate history from this period (and arguably the first to explicitly posit cross-time travel from one universe to another as anything more than a visionary experience) is H.G. Wells' Men Like Gods (1923) in which several Englishmen are transferred via an accidental encounter with a cross-time machine into an alternate universe featuring a seemingly pacifistic and utopian Britain. When the Englishmen, led by a satiric figure based on Winston Churchill, try to seize power, the utopians simply point a ray gun at them and send them on to someone else's universe. Wells describes a multiverse of alternative worlds, complete with the paratime travel machines that would later become popular with U.S. pulp writers, but since his hero experiences only a single alternate world this story is not very different from conventional alternate history.

The 1930s would see alternate history move into a new arena. The December 1933 issue of Astounding published Nat Schachner's "Ancestral Voices," quickly followed by Murray Leinster's "Sidewise in Time". While earlier alternate histories examined reasonably straight-forward divergences, Leinster attempted something completely different. In his "world gone mad", pieces of Earth traded places with their analogs from different timelines. The story follows Professor Minott and his students from a fictitious Robinson College as they wander through analogues of worlds that followed a different history.

Time travel as a means of creating historical divergences

This period also saw the publication of the time travel novel Lest Darkness Fall by L. Sprague de Camp where an American academic travels to the Italy of the Ostrogoths at the time of the Byzantine invasion led by Belisarius. De Camp's work is concerned with the historical changes wrought by his time traveler, Martin Padway, thereby making the work an alternate history. Padway is depicted as making permanent changes and implicitly forming a new time branch.

Time travel as the cause of a point of divergence (creating two histories where before there was one, or simply replacing the future that existed before the time traveling event) has continued to be a popular theme: in Bring the Jubilee, by Ward Moore, the protagonist, who lives in an alternate history in which the South won the Civil War, travels through time and brings about a Union victory in the Battle of Gettysburg.

When a story's assumptions about the nature of time travel lead to the complete replacement of the visited time's future rather than just the creation of an additional time line, the device of a "time patrol" is often used. Such an agency has the grim task of saving civilization every day, every hour, with patrol membersepicted most notably in Poul Anderson's "Time Patrol"--racing uptime and downtime to preserve the "correct" history. This is eventually revealed to be the one in which humanity transforms itself into a benevolent super-species that, amongst other achievements, creates time travel to ensure its own existence.

This can lead to terrible moral dilemmas. In Delenda Est, the interference of time-travelling outlaws causes Carthage to win the Second Punic War and destroy Rome. As a result, there is a completely different Twentieth Century -- "not better or worse, just completely different". The hero, Patrol Agent Manse Everard, must return to that period, fight the outlaws and change history back, restoring his (and our) familiar historyut only at the price of totally destroying the world which has taken its place, and which is equally deserving of existence. The stakes are the highest imaginable: billions of lives balanced against other billions of lives, for one man to decide. "Risking your neck in order to negate a world full of people like yourself" is how the hero describes what he eventually undertakes.

A more recent example is Making History by Stephen Fry, in which a time machine is used to alter history so that Adolf Hitler was never born. Despite this however, a different leader resulted in Nazi Germany being more successful than it was under Hitler, with the Germans winning World War II and now in a Cold War with the United States.

Cross-time stories

H.G. Wells' "cross-time"/"many universes" variant (see above) was fully developed by De Camp in his 1940 short story "The Wheels of If" (Unknown Fantasy Fiction, October 1940), in which the hero is repeatedly shifted from one alternate history to another, each more remote from our own than the last. This subgenre was used early on for purposes far removed from quasi-academic examination of alternative outcomes to historical events. Fredric Brown employed it to satirize the science fiction pulps and their adolescent readersnd fears of foreign invasionn the classic What Mad Universe (1949). In Clifford Simak's Ring Around the Sun (1953), the hero ends up in an alternate earth of thick forests in which humanity never developed but where a band of mutants is establishing a colony; the story line appears to frame the author's anxieties regarding McCarthyism and the Cold War.[citation needed]

Also in the late 1940s and the 1950s, however, writers such as H. Beam Piper, Sam Merwin, Jr. and Andre Norton wrote thrillers set in a multiverse in which all alternate histories are co-existent and travel between them occurs via a technology involving portals and/or paratime capsules. These authors established the convention of a secret paratime trading empire that exploits and/or protects worlds lacking the paratime technology via a network of James Bond-style secret agents (Piper called them the "paratime police").

This concept provided a convenient framing for packing a smorgasbord of historical alternatives (and even of timeline "branches") into a single novel, either via the hero chasing or being chased by the villain(s) through multiple worlds or (less artfully) via discussions between the paratime cops and their superiors (or between paratime agents and new recruits) regarding the histories of such worlds.

The paratime theme is sometimes used without the police; Poul Anderson dreamed up the Old Phoenix tavern as a nexus between alternate histories. A character from a modern American alternate history Operation Chaos can thus appear in the English Civil War setting of A Midsummer's Tempest. In this context, the distinction between an alternate history and a parallel universe with some points in common but no common history may not be feasible, as the writer may not provide enough information to distinguish.

Paratime thrillers published in recent decades often cite the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (first formulated by Hugh Everett III in 1957) to account for the differing worlds. Some science fiction writers interpret the splitting of worlds to depend on human decision-making and free will, while others rely on the butterfly effect from chaos theory to amplify random differences at the atomic or subatomic level into a macroscopic divergence at some specific point in history; either way, science fiction writers usually have all changes flow from a particular historical point of divergence (often abbreviated 'POD' by fans of the genre). Prior to Everett, science-fiction writers drew on higher dimensions and the speculations of P. D. Ouspensky to explain their characters' cross-time journeys.

While many justifications for alternate histories involve a multiverse, the "many world" theory would naturally involve many worlds, in fact a continually exploding array of universes. In quantum theory, new worlds would proliferate with every quantum event, and even if the writer uses human decisions, every decision that could be made differently would result in a different timeline. A writer's fictional multiverse may, in fact, preclude some decisions as humanly impossible, as when, in Night Watch, Terry Pratchett depicts a character informing Vimes that while anything that can happen, has happened, nevertheless there is no history whatsoever in which Vimes has ever murdered his wife. When the writer explicitly maintains that all possible decisions are made in all possible ways, one possible conclusion is that the characters were neither brave, nor clever, nor skilled, but simply lucky enough to happen on the universe in which they did not choose the cowardly route, take the stupid action, fumble the crucial activity, etc.; few writers focus on this idea, although it has been explored in stories such as Larry Niven's All the Myriad Ways, where the reality of all possible universes leads to an epidemic of suicide and crime because people conclude their choices have no moral import.

In any case, even if it is true that every possible outcome occurs in some world, it can still be argued that traits such as bravery and intelligence might still affect the relative frequency of worlds in which better or worse outcomes occurred (even if the total number of worlds with each type of outcome is infinite, it is still possible to assign a different measure to different infinite sets). The physicist David Deutsch, a strong advocate of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, has argued along these lines, saying that "By making good choices, doing the right thing, we thicken the stack of universes in which versions of us live reasonable lives. When you succeed, all the copies of you who made the same decision succeed too. What you do for the better increases the portion of the multiverse where good things happen." This view is perhaps somewhat too abstract to be explored directly in science fiction stories, but a few writers have tried, such as Greg Egan in his short story The Infinite Assassin, where an agent is trying to contain reality-scrambling "whirlpools" that form around users of a certain drug, and the agent is constantly trying to maximize the consistency of behavior among his alternate selves, attempting to compensate for events and thoughts he experiences but he guesses are of low measure relative to those experienced by most of his other selves.

Many writerserhaps the majorityvoid the discussion entirely. In one novel of this type, H. Beam Piper's Lord Kalvan of Otherwhen, a Pennsylvania State Police officer, who knows how to make gunpowder, is transported from our world to an alternate universe where the recipe for gunpowder is a tightly held secret and saves a country that is about to be conquered by its neighbors. The paratime patrol members are warned against going into the timelines immediately surrounding it, where the country will be overrun, but the book never depicts the slaughter of the innocent thus entailed, remaining solely in the timeline where the country is saved.

The cross-time theme was further developed in the 1960s by Keith Laumer in the first three volumes of his Imperium sequence, which would be completed in Zone Yellow (1990). Piper's politically more sophisticated variant was adopted and adapted by Michael Kurland and Jack Chalker in the 1980s; Chalker's G.O.D. Inc trilogy (1987-89), featuring paratime detectives Sam and Brandy Horowitz, marks the first attempt at merging the paratime thriller with the police procedural[citation needed]. Kurland's Perchance (1988), the first volume of the never-completed "Chronicles of Elsewhen", presents a multiverse of secretive cross-time societies that utilize a variety of means for cross-time travel, ranging from high-tech capsules to mutant powers. Harry Turtledove has launched the Crosstime Traffic series for teenagers featuring a variant of H. Beam Piper's paratime trading empire.

The concept of a cross-time version of a world war, involving rival paratime empires, was developed in Fritz Leiber's Change War series, starting with the Hugo Award winning The Big Time (1958); followed by Richard C. Meredith's Timeliner trilogy in the 1970s, Michael McCollum's A Greater Infinity (1982) and John Barnes' Timeline Wars trilogy in the 1990s.

Such "paratime" stories may include speculation that the laws of nature can vary from one universe to the next, providing a science fictional explanationr veneeror what is normally fantasy. Aaron Allston's Doc Sidhe and Sidhe Devil take place between our world, the "grim world" and an alternate "fair world" where the Sidhe retreated to. Although technology is clearly present in both worlds, and the "fair world" parallels our history, about fifty years out of step, there is functional magic in the fair world. Even with such explanation, the more explicitly the alternate world resembles a normal fantasy world, the more likely the story is to be labeled fantasy, as in Poul Anderson's "House Rule" and "Loser's Night."

In both science fiction and fantasy, whether a given parallel universe is an alternate history may not be clear. The writer might allude to a POD only to explain the existence and make no use of the concept, or may present the universe without explanation to its existence.

Major writers explore alternate histories

In 1962, Philip K. Dick published The Man in the High Castle, an alternate history in which Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan won World War II. This book contained an example of "alternate-alternate" history, in that one of its characters is the author of a book in which the Allies won the war.

It was followed by Vladimir Nabokov's Ada or Ardor: A Family Chronicle (1969), a story of incest that takes place within an alternate North America settled in part by Czarist Russia, and that borrows from Dick's idea of "alternate-alternate" history (the world of Nabokov's hero is wracked by rumors of a "counter-earth" that apparently is ours). Some critics believe that the references to a counter-earth suggest that the world portrayed in Ada is a delusion in the mind of the hero (another favorite theme of Dick's novels). Strikingly, the characters in Ada seem to acknowledge their own world as the copy or negative version, calling it "Anti-Terra" while its mythical twin is the real "Terra." Not only history but science has followed a divergent path on Anti-Terra: it boasts all the same technology as our world, but all based on wat

Know More about Mascot Costumes

Mascot costumes have already been a vital part of our social history. Generally, the custom mascot costume is going to be worn in some happy and intriguing occasions. Nowadays, the majority of people have their own favorite cartoon characters or well-known stars, they will wear the costumes their stars. What is more, it can help you enhance the sports spirit.
Regardless of whether with regards to symbolizing a professional sports association or a local high school, these costumes are widely-used for bringing up the sports spirit us, the spectators and the players really need. This is the reason why mascot costumes leave an extremely pleasant recollection in our minds. There would be few folks who remember much about the high schools but bigger games are treasured by all and mascots are one the reasons of that.
This can be an exceptionally good idea since the majority of people have their own favorite cartoon characters or well-known stars.

If they see the dolls of their preferred idols, they're going to feel instead happy and energized. Nowadays, I want to reveal some knowledge of the cute and inexpensive mascot costumes with you.
More often than not, most of the people pick to go out in all forms of festivals. In order to attract more consumers, the stores will try their very best to think of all sorts of specific concepts. Some shops wish to hire adults to wear mascot costumes in an effort to entice much more customers.
All in all, it can be an excellent idea for all of us to take advantage of the mascot costumes. Using the assist of the costumes, we'll certainly possess an improved and happier daily life.

All in all, it can be an excellent idea for all of us to take advantage of the mascot costumes. Using the assist of the costumes, we'll certainly possess an improved and happier daily life.

The History Of Botox

Although Botox is considered to be somewhat recent in its use and popularity, the discovery of its various properties and uses has been long in coming. Actually, it can be fascinating to learn about this product, especially for those who are considering having either cosmetic or medical treatments done with this specific medication. You may be surprised to find out that this substance can trace its roots all the way back to the early 1800s. 

In the 1820s, several German people died after consuming sausage. Dr. Justinus Kerner did extensive testing and experiments, and discovered that botulism was the cause of these deaths. He also found various symptoms that were related to botulism, including paralysis, droopy eyelids, and respiratory failure. It was more than a century before scientists began to make important discoveries as to how this particular toxin could be useful in medicine. 
In the 1950s, Dr. Edward J. Schantz and others discovered a way to purify botulinum toxin A into a form that they could successfully work with. When this toxin was drastically diluted and injected into a muscle, they found that it would cause temporary paralysis in that specific muscle. Over the next few years, it was successfully used in experiments to treat muscle spasms and crossed eyes. By the late 1980s, the brand name Botox was first introduced and began to be used for various medical and cosmetic purposes. 
During the next few decades, this medication became widely known as a treatment for wrinkles and creases, specifically in the face. Many people took advantage of the opportunity to reduce the appearance of these age lines. The procedure is performed by administering several injections into the muscles. These muscles are then weakened and the wrinkles are reduced significantly. A single treatment usually lasts for approximately four to six months, depending on the person and the area of the treatment. 
Although its use for cosmetic reasons was very widely accepted, scientists continued to study Botox and began to discover various other medical uses for it. It can also be used to stop muscle spasms, and is used in the treatment of cervical dystonia in order to reduce neck pain and to relax muscles that cause the head to maintain an irregular position. It is also used in the treatment of various eye muscle problems and excessive underarm sweating. One of the most recent discoveries is that Botox can prevent headaches in adults who have chronic migraines. Over the past several years, there have been many important discoveries with relation to this substance and there will likely be many more in the future.
Further reading and advice: Botox Belfast

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Fashion Designing Against Costume Designing


Though fashion designing is now a day gaining much attention, importance and preference, one more profession which is more related to fashion designing and having a vast scope but not that much gained attention and preference is "Costume Designing".

The success of any movie or drama serial also depends on the characters costume but the audiences are mainly interested only to know about the actor, director, musician, lyricist, chromatographer or choreographer but hardly anybody interested in to know about the costume designer.

The dynamic growth of entertainment media -Television, Cinema, and technology etc., has lead to budding of number of TV channels and making of increased number of movies either nationally or regionally. The TV channels have to come up with more number of drama serials, programmes, shows in order to attract more number of viewers. Every channel whether it is a kid channel, sports channel, news channel or commercial, all have various programmes, specialty shows, drama serials. All need a Right Costume rather to say a good costume.

Costume Designing

Costume designing is an art of designing or choosing or procuring suitable/right costume-from dresses to accessories-to a character/presenter in a play or movie or show.

An improper or wrong costume may lead to the vagueness in the play or movie or show. So to take care of the right costume for the play or movie or show, the responsibility is given to a separate person who is known as Costume designer. So every play or movie or show needs a costume designer. It is a challenging, interesting and cautious job which requires much more skills when comparing to fashion designing. Though costume designing is much related to fashion designing most of the fashion designing students are not much aware of the profession of costume designing and the scope it provides. Now, costume designing is mostly done by famous fashion designers or by the person who has gained experience in this profession but very few qualified fashion designers do costume designing.

1.Costume Designing is done to the character or story while Fashion Designing is done to ones own creativity and tastes or to customers.

2.More challenging and limited time frame in Costume Designing while Not much challenging and no limitation for time in Fashion Designing

3.Limitations to creativeness in Costume Designing while No limitations to creativeness in Fashion Designing

4.In Costume Design, Designs should match to the theme of the story or character while In Fashion Design, Designs should match to the trends.

5.In Costume Design, Need for the knowledge of culture, history, places, rituals, social values etc., while In Fashion Design, Not compulsory but it is an additional advantage.

6.Costume Design Involves high cost while Fashion Design Not much cost oriented

7.Costume Design, Limited assignment at a particular time while Fashion Design, No limitations; Depends on the capability of fashion designer.

8.In Costume Design At a given time need to design for various role, characters, situations/locations etc. while In Fashion Design, Designing is done to a particular target customers.

9.Costume Designs can be outsourced and copied while Fashion Designs should be ones own creativity.

10.In Costume Design Need to interact with many people while In Fashion Design, Not that much interaction is needed.

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History Windsurf

They put together make up two of their favorite sports in the office, albeit a little weird, a patented hybrid of a very aptly named Schweitzer "surfing." And even though the pair made it to sports, which we now know, the first inventor of sports sailing on the board (the board) were Newman and Naomi Darby.


Thanks to the magazine American Windsurfing Magazine story and Naomi Newman came out of oblivion. Name Darby often pops up when discussing the roots of surfing, but the idea has always been considered a failure and it was regarded as a nesrabotavshey. In fact, Newman had the idea of "free sail" since 1948. And their boards Darby produced and sold since 1964. Their story should be read necessarily. If you have not already done so, look for Volume 5, Issue 1, or visit American Windsurfer Magazine. In addition, the first person to be photographed on a sailing surfing (seylborde), was a woman - Naomi! More detailed first-hand information available in electronic museum Darby (Darby Electronic Museum). 20 August 1997. Brian and Lorraine Carlstrom, organized a meeting with Newman Darby. At a meeting attended by over 300 people. This was the first public official recognition of the contribution of Darby in the creation of windsurfing.

The essence of joint invention and Darby Drake / Albert Schweitzer was setting sail on a hinged stand when under sail itself should keep the crossbar (the boom) and crossbar (geek) can move in any direction in its plane. This movement allows the bolt to change direction without using steering.

Darby stopped production of its seylbordov in the late 60's due to poor sales, and only in the early 70's the new sport lunged forward with the start of mass production of the new brand Schweitzer's Windsurfer. These durable polyethylene boards were used for all levels of sailing, because the other did not exist. They begin to learn, they rode the wizard. Windserfer was fit to all regardless of conditions. By the end of the 70's surfing has taken a strong position in Europe. More familiar to the individual sports than team, the Europeans are massively engaged in windsurfing, every third family had seylbord as they were called. Dozens of European manufacturers have to produce their own versions of Windserfer'a - a new kind of a thriving industry.

Americans have begun to acquire the surf in Europe, and this trend continues to this day. Start the 80 marked by a grandiose growth windsurfing. Number of participants in races was always high, was born the World Cup and the Olympics 1984. Los Angeles got windsurfing Olympic status. Equipment-intensive perfected at a furious pace all mid-80's, and as is the case with world records for speed sailing at 36 knots, set by windsurfer. Since windsurfers are constantly building up speed, improving technology and equipment, and over 40 knots. Now the record is fixed at an unbelievable level - 80 km / hr. And today, surfing is completely fine sport for all ages.

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Ethnic style in fashion history

In the modern fashion ethnic style is incredibly popular. None fashion collection, none fashion show can not do without things or ethnic accessories. And what place is occupied by an ethnic style in fashion history where it all began, as is the case now? 

What generally constitutes an ethnic identity? History of fashion knows no more original, colorful and strange style. Appeared due to the style hippie subculture. All of their existence, ideology, lifestyle became contrary to generally accepted rules and norms of behavior. In the sixties of last century hippies turned away from European values, and appealed to the ancient history of Africa, East and Central America. In life embodied not only the outlook, behavior, and traditional ethnic motifs in clothing, footwear and accessories.

Fashion history has striking new developments, uncharacteristic of traditional European civilization.

The second half of the sixties was marked by a scandalous appearance of mini-skirts. High boots in combination with a super mini, the use of synthetic, man-made materials took over the world. It seemed that the future awaits us only "space" fashion, that the return to the classics will not be. But well, it all happened differently.

Hippies did not change myself. Craze for mini-skirts they protivostvavili long skirts made of natural materials and jeans. At a time when everyone was addicted geometric shapes of clothing, informal youth chose flowing lines, ethnic motifs.

Taking as a role model for peoples of the Ancient East, hippies osili clothes that are not shackled movement. Among them are the blouses and dresses made of translucent tissue, "flying" tunics and scarves, Indian saris and robes of monks in Tibet. The main value in life was a harmony with nature. And this is manifested in everything, even in clothes. It is made exclusively from natural materials, ideally - with their hands.

Flower children imitated not only the Eastern peoples. Their vdohnavlyala same story marrokantsev, American Indians, gypsies. That hippie rediscovered fashion Indian moccasins, mexican poncho, moroccan tunics, colorful gypsy skirts, beaded accessories, Baubles and more.

How did react to the hippie craze high fashion? How did the ethnic style in fashion history? The Sixties were a difficult decade in fashion history. Feature of this period Truce in that fashion trends shifted from the streets of the fashion stage, and not vice versa. Modelry from around the world inspired by the updates to street fashion. These new items were developed and refined, becoming a work of art.

One of the first to ethno style, Yves Saint Laurent. In 1960 he went to the podium "rocker bride." Black turtlenecks, leather shirts. This collection has caused serious criticism from the highest society, other designers and the press. Yves Saint Laurent was forced to leave the fashion house of Dior, although at the time he and his head. But leaving only gave freedom and independence. And after some time his collection with elements of ethnic identity has been praised.

While the hippie clothes evoked disgust, many considered her unkempt, dilapidated. After the ethnic style of a hand, Yves Saint Laurent, she gained the noble, the salon look. Romantic dress of silk and organza for aristocrats qualitatively different from the patchwork clothes with mixed patterns of street hippies. Couturier in his works using traditional motifs Africa, Peru, ancient China, Morocco. Clothing of the wizard has become popular among people who had multimillion-states.

Ethnic style in the history of fashion - haute couture from Yves Saint Laurent sigral a pivotal role. The African collection olichalas bright colors and unusual materials deshiviznoy. Used linen, wood, straw and glass. The Chinese collection is rife with unusual colors: pink, orange, yellow and purple. Unusual ostentatious luxury theater. Indian collections have brought unusual lightness. But in the words of the most beautiful couture was a Russian collection. Russian revolution in fashion has not happened, but woke up the interest of Europeans to the whole russkmu. This mode does not lose its relevance to the present day.

On ethnic identity and the history of fashionis largely influenced by Japanese fashion designer Kenzo. His style was different ethnic cheerful variegated. Interestingly a combination of a simple cut kimono and Scandinavian, South American, eastern elements. Japanese fabric flower side by side with the Scottish cell, a Chinese jacket with a collar stand is complemented with white cotton ruffled country style. Kenzo makes extensive use of Spanish boleros, Indian fringe, Russian blouse and fur hats, Indian paydzhamu. Moodelera experiments led to a combination of sports and classical style with elements of ethno.

Fashion history is not without mention of Jean Paul Gaultier. Ethnic style accompanies all of his collection. As soon as the ethno entered his work in 1976 and never left him. Sama loved reception Gaultier - using elements of the national costumes of various nations together, and mixing different styles. Designer draws inspiration from the streets. For example, see Hasidic rabbis, Jean-Paul created a collection of "Rabbi-chic." Base - jackets, long-skirted black dress, shirts and caps worn outside "pile." But culture of Southeast Asia was inspired to create a collection "Tattoo, which became fashionable operdelyayuschey for youth fashion for a decade. "Chips" collection - piercings, graffiti, imitation tattoos. Absolutely Africa were present in the collections of "Big Trip", "Mongolians," "The African saga.

Twitter History

There are many social networking web sites such as My Space or Facebook which let users build profiles, upload pictures, play games, incorporate multimedia and acquire new friends. But one Web company with a very simple service is rapidly becoming one of the most talked about social networking service providers: Twitter. Twitters founders are Evan Williams, Jack Dorsey and Biz Stone. Twitter history is very interesting and original. Twitter was born about three years ago. A few years ago Williams created Blogger, which was a popular Web journal service, then Google bought Blogger, and Williams began to work for Google. He and Google employee Stone left the Internet giant to form a new company called Odeo. Odeo is a podcasting service company. Williams didnt have a personal interest in podcasting and under his guidance, the company temporarily lost focus.However one of Odeos products Twitter was just beginning to gather steam. So in which way twitter was born? Who has given this interesting idea? While the stuff of the company was sitting in a park and eating Mexican food, Dorsey introduced the idea of an individual using SMS service to communicate with a small group. The original project code name was twitr,inspired by Flickr and five character lengh of American SMS short codes. The developers considered 10958 like a short code, but later changed it to 40404, because it was easy to remember. The project started on March 21 2006, when Dorsey published first Twitter message at 9:50 PM: just setting up my twitter. There are two version of the projects name. The first is that it was called twitter, because the sound of SMS looks like the sound of birds and the second like was producted by Jack Dorsey the definition of twitter was a short burst of inconsequential information, and chrips from birds.The first Twitter prototype was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and full version introduced publicly on July 15,2006 and since then Twitter has become giant social networking web site and has 200 million users, generating 65 million tweets a day and handing over 800.000 search requests per day. It is sometimes described as the SMS of the Internet.

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Cosmetic Surgery - Liposuction

Liposuction is a very common surgery throughout the United States and Europe, but not everyone is a candidate for this complex, and often dangerous procedure. In this article we will do our best to describe the liposuction process in some detail, including a little history about liposuction and some of the major risks involved in certain cases.

Liposuction is a type of cosmetic surgery which was invented in Italy in 1974. While most think liposuction is simply a procedure where fat is "sucked" out of the body, the process is much more complex than that. A skilled surgeon is required for any type of liposuction procedure, as is a qualified anesthesiologist and surgical staff. In the procedure, fat is either surgically removed from the body (there are limits to how much fat can be safely removed) or reshaped to give off a smoother more sleek appearance.

In recent years, the popularity of liposuction surgery has exploded, making it the most common type of surgical procedure performed.

However, if you're thinking about undergoing liposuction surgery, you had better meet with a doctor first to discuss all your options. What you'll find is that not everyone is a good candidate for liposuction surgery, with candidacy most often being related to good physical health and enough fat to warrant the procedure.

Liposuction is usually safe, but the safety of the procedure does depend on a number of factors including your honesty in disclosing medical conditions and medications, the skill of the surgeon and the skill of the anesthesiologist. Most problems with liposuction occur as the result of the patient's refusal to follow the post-operative procedure or other complications, causing, in the most serious cases, fat in the blood stream and blood clots near the lungs, both of which can be deadly.

Before you even consider undergoing liposuction surgery it is recommended that you meet with a doctor to discuss all of your options.

Liposuction is not for everyone, and because of the risks involved with the procedure, it should definitely be a decision you weigh very carefully.

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Cosmetic Dentist ? Worth Exploring

Dentists are not just for problems and issues that you may face in your teeth. This is an era of image makeovers, and you would no longer have to live with, what you think, is scope for possible improvement. Nor are improvements to looks an exclusive privilege of the select few, who are branded as celebrities and celebrated around the world by millions of fans. The cosmetic dentist is here for everyone, and in a free world, there is no need to have aspirations that are not met. Also called the smile makeover, what the cosmetic dentist can make out of your looks with minor and significant changes to your profile can be amazing and outstanding, beyond what you might have imagined was possible.

With there being so many cases of celebrities opting to consult the cosmetic dentist for their image enhancements, and with there being such an increased exposure to common folks, what with the media going all out to pronounce the bold and the beautiful, there is an increased awareness among the general public towards what could be achieved with minor enhancements to their looks through simple and trusted techniques.

The cosmetic dentist specialises in the field of practice, called cosmetic dentistry, which features a lot of techniques and procedures. The techniques used vary depending on the type of teeth, the dental history, as well as on the kind of looks desired as a result of the procedure.

Tooth whitening is a common procedure undertaken by the cosmetic dentist, which would equip you with a brilliant smile, filled with confidence. Tooth straightening is another form of cosmetic dentistry, where the cosmetic dentist embarks on a project to set irregularly shaped or arranged teeth back in form. In each of these cases, there are numerous options available, with each option using a different technique and producing different results. The cosmetic dentist also works on providing replacements for missing teeth, providing porcelain dental veneers, dental crowns or making dental implants.

Facial rejuvenation is also an important part of the work of the cosmetic dentist, where novel practices such as non-surgical facelifts, which are more than just smile enhancers. While cosmetic dentistry has become a business of its own, it would pay well to contact a well known cosmetic dentist, who looks at the art of cosmetic enhancement with passion and care, and has gained a reputation of safe and effective facial makeovers, over the years.

Pirate Costumes - The Latest Costume Party Disguise

Adults, as much as kids, have fun getting disguised and running wild in a certain occasion. However, finding the right costume can prove to be difficult especially because of gender bias. Thanks to pirate costumes, gender stereotype is not something to be concerned about. All pirate lovers can now rise up to the challenge and fun of spotting the hidden treasure amidst a pitch black room.

True enough, many of the pirates in literature and history were men while women were generally portrayed in land-based supporting roles. There are nonetheless a few stories of fiery women with the sea in their veins, and women's pirate costumes reflect just that. Of course, in the male-dominated pirate scene, female characters like pirate wench costumes or working girls are often relegated to serving drinks at the tavern.

Pirate costumes are popular with children, and equally so for adults.

Adult pirate costumes go further than those for children: they are more nuanced, more complex, and definitely sexier. For both sexes, the pirate image oozes a sense of lawlessness, strength, and unwavering independence. These are characters that are confident in what they do and who they are, and can beat you down if they needed or wanted to.

Pirate costumes usually come with a ton of props. No adult pirate costume is complete without an eye patch, a pirate teeth, and hooks on an iron hand. One can also choose to have a pirate head wrap while holding and swinging pirate weapons. Guns and cutlasses are the favorites but you can always choose your own weapon to fight other scalawags or even the British Royal Navy.

Ladies pirate costumes come in different styles and characteristics too. Women can choose from being pirate lass, a pirate queen, or Seven Seas Siren. Of course, an eye catching pirate hat or band can also fit the ladies. For adult women, the pirate-setting character gets an additional facet. They are supposedly enlightened to the sexuality of things, and the characters they look at and portray get that sexual side to them. The pirate is someone who takes what they want from whoever they wish and does whatever they feel. This carefree spirit extends to the costume, giving it that sexy yet butt-kicking feel. A pirate costume says "I am strong, I am sexy, and you will not want to mess with me". Even pirate wench costumes have a tough, I-won't-take-any-of-your-nonsense look.

Pirates have conquered the world of Halloween and other costume parties. It's time to get into the trend and party in style with the best pirate Halloween costume you can come up with. Still, it all comes down to how you play the part. Talking like a pirate is only an extra. It is about how you swagger, how you move with effortless confidence. This is what we admire the most about pirates: they are confident. They are confident enough to not care what others think and to feel that what they do is right. If you think you can do that, then the pirate costume will look great on you. Put one on and you can go in search of treasure, danger, and wild times!

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Samsung History

Within 1938, Shelter Byung-chull (1910–1987) of the big landowning loved ones within the Uiryeong region found a close by Daegu town and additionally started Samsung Sanghoe, a little buying and selling organization along with 40 workers positioned in Su-dong (right now Ingyo-dong). This worked within food created around the town and additionally created noodles by itself. The organization prospered and additionally Shelter relocated it's hq in order to Seoul within 1947. Once the Korean Battle shattered away, nevertheless, he or she had been pressured in order to depart Seoul and additionally began the sugars refinery within Busan like a title associated with Cheil Jedang. Following the battle, within 1954, Shelter started Cheil Mojik and additionally constructed a grow within Chimsan-dong, Daegu. It had been the biggest woolen generator actually in the united kingdom and also the organization required with an facet of a significant organization.

Samsung varied in to numerous places and additionally Shelter searched for to determine Samsung being an business innovator within an array of businesses, getting into companies for example insurance coverage, investments, and additionally list.

Shelter positioned excellent significance upon industrialization, and additionally concentrated their financial improvement technique upon a number of big household conglomerates, safeguarding all of them through competitors and additionally helping all of them monetarily. He or she later on prohibited a number of international businesses through promoting gadgets within Southern Korea to be able to safeguard Samsung through international competitors.

Within the past due sixties, Samsung Team joined to the consumer electronics business. This created a number of electronics-related sections, for example Samsung Consumer electronics Products Company., Samsung Electro-Mechanics Company., Samsung Corning Company., and additionally Samsung Semiconductor & Telecoms Company., and additionally created a service within Suwon. It's very first item had been the black-and-white tv. Within 1980, the organization obtained Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin within Gumi, and additionally began to construct telecommunication products. It's earlier items had been switchboards. A service had been progressed into the phone and additionally fax production techniques and additionally grew to become a center associated with Samsung's cell phone production. They've created more than eight hundred zillion cell phones up to now. The organization arranged all of them collectively below Samsung Consumer electronics Company., Ltd. within the 1980s.

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Chaplain History


The chaplains are considered as the bases of the biblical teachings of the Old Testaments. The chaplains are regarded as an eminent part of tradition of military from the earlier years that lead to European antecedents that used clergy system in the revolutionary war in 1971. This paper carries out a SWOT analysis of the Christian Chaplaincy in order to understand the history, duties and the difficulties that were faced by the chaplains. 

From the pages of past history, one can easily find out the roles and the function that have been played so far by the military chaplains The chaplains are considered to be the healers, helping hands and a voice of inspiration for comforting the military officials at the time of jeopardizing.  Chaplains are members of clergy who serve as the religious guiders on the borders. Chaplains provide morals to strengthen the faith of army.

They do not carry weapons but they have the power to govern the minds of the army officers with the help of religious text to comfort their souls in the crucial times of misery in remote locations. They are specially trained for guiding religiously and they are considered to be experts in conveying the religious messages (Thompson).

The tradition of chaplaincy is old as the concept of war. The Christian chaplaincy has been a part of military from the French and Indian War. The regularity in the appointment of chaplaincy was called upon by George Washington. The continental army instituted the chaplaincy services during the American Revolution (Bergen).


The strength of the chaplains is that they serve as the morale booster and work for the battle indirectly by being the strength for the army.

They serve in the battle field indirectly by polishing the goals and faiths of the army. Chaplains had served the armies of Christians and its roots could easily be found in spiritual text namely the Old Testament. One of the examples could be the priest Aaron who served the purpose of morale booster for the fighters. Chaplains also performed the function of medical in the revolutionary war period. The chaplains carried the wounded ones to the remote location. History also reveals that the chaplains also buried the dead officers which was then included in the religious task of the chaplains (Bergen).


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Motorcycle History

Early milestones

Petroleum power

The inspiration for the earliest dirt bike, and arguably the first motorcycle, was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (since 1905 a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885. The first petroleum-powered vehicle, it was essentially a motorized bicycle, although the inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding carriage"). They had not set out to create a vehicle form but to build a simple carriage for the engine, which was the focus of their endeavours.

Steam power

However, if one counts two wheels with steam propulsion as being a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American. One such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern United States in 1867, built by Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts.

There exists an example of a Roper machine dating from 1869, but there is no patent existing and nothing proves it was a working model. It was powered by a charcoal-fired two-cylinder engine, whose connecting rods directly drive a crank on the rear wheel. The Roper machine pre-dates the invention of the safety bicycle by many years, so its chassis is based on the "boneshaker" bike.

In 1868, the French engineer Louis-Guillaume Perreaux patented a similar steam-powered vehicle, which was probably invented independent of Roper's. In this case, although a patent exists that is dated 1868, nothing indicates the invention had been operable before 1871. Nevertheless, these steam-powered vehicles were invented prior to the first petroleum-powered motorcycle.

An 1894 Hildebrand & Wolfmller

The English persisted with steam powered bikes into the Edwardian period.[citation needed] Pearson and Cox was one firm that made units until the First World War.[citation needed]

First commercial products

In the decade from the late 1880s, dozens of designs and machines emerged, particularly in France, Germany and England, and soon spread to America.

During this early period of motorcycle history, there were many manufacturers since bicycle makers were adapting their designs for the new internal combustion engine.

In 1894, the Hildebrand & Wolfmller became the first motorcycle available to the public for purchase. However, only a few hundred examples of this motorcycle were ever built. Soon, as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle-oriented producers increased.

The first known motorcycle in the United States was said to be brought to New York by a French circus performer, in 1895. It weighed about 200 lb (91 kg) and was capable of 40 mph (64 km/h) on a level surface. However, that same year, an inventor from the United States E.J. Pennington demonstrated a motorcycle of his own design in Milwaukee. Pennington claimed his machine was capable of a speed of 58 mph (93 km/h), and is credited with inventing the term "motor cycle" to describe his machine.

The 20th century

Before World War II

A 1913 FN (Fabrique National), Belgium, 4cylinders and shaft drive

In 1901 English quadricycle and bicycle maker Royal Enfield introduced its first motorcycle, with a 239 cc engine mounted in the front and driving the rear wheel through a belt. In 1898, English bicycle maker Triumph decided to extend its focus to include motorcycles, and by 1902, the company had produced its first motorcycle bicycle fitted with a Belgian-built engine. In 1903, as Triumph's motorcycle sales topped 500, the American company Harley-Davidson started producing motorcycles.

In 1904, the Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Company, which had been founded by two former bicycle racers, designed the so-called "diamond framed" Indian Single, whose engine was built by the Aurora Firm in Illinois. The Single was made available in the deep red color that would become Indian's trademark. By then, Indian's production was up to over 500 bikes annually and would rise to 32,000, its best ever, in 1913.

During this period, experimentation and innovation were driven by the popular new sport of motorcycle racing, with its powerful incentive to produce tough, fast, reliable machines. These enhancements quickly found their way to the public machines.

A 1923 BMW R32, with a shaft-drive, boxer twin engine

Chief August Vollmer of the Berkeley, California Police Department is credited with organizing the first official Police Motorcycle Patrol in the United States in 1911. By 1914, motorcycles were no longer just bicycles with engines; they had their own technologies, although many still maintained bicycle elements, like the seats and suspension.

A pre-war Polish Sok 1000

An historic V-twin American motorcycle a 1941 Crocker

Until the First World War, Indian was the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. After that, this honor went to Harley-Davidson, until 1928 when DKW took over as the largest manufacturer. BMW motorcycles came on the scene in 1923 with a shaft drive and an opposed-twin or "boxer" engine enclosed with the transmission in a single aluminum housing.

By 1931, Indian and Harley-Davidson were the only two American manufacturers producing commercial motorcycles. This two-company rivalry in the United States remained until 1953, when the Indian Motorcycle factory in Springfield, Massachusetts closed and Royal Enfield took over the Indian name.

There were over 80 different makes of motorcycle available in Britain in the 1930s, from the familiar marques like Norton, Triumph and AJS to the completely obscure, with names like New Gerrard, NUT, SOS, Chell and Whitwood, about twice as many motorcycle makes competing in the world market during the early 21st century.

In 1937, Joe Petrali set a new land speed record of 136.183 mph (219.165 km/h) on a modified Harley-Davidson 61 cubic inch (1000 cc) overhead valve-driven motorcycle. The same day, Petrali also broke the speed record for 45 cubic inch (737 cc) engine motorcycles.

In Europe, production demands, driven by the buildup to World War II, included motorcycles for military use, and BSA supplied 126,000 BSA M20 motorcycles to the British armed forces, starting in 1937 and continuing until 1950. Royal Enfield also produced motorcycles for the military, including a 125 cc lightweight motorcycle that could be dropped (in a parachute-fitted tube cage) from an aircraft.

After World War II

An original Vespa with sidecar

After the Second World War, some American veterans found a replacement for the camaraderie, excitement, danger and speed of life at war in motorcycles. Grouped into loosely organized clubs, motorcycle riders in the U.S. created a new social institutionhe motorcyclists or "bikers"hich was later skewed by the "outlaw" persona Marlon Brando portrayed in the 1954 film The Wild One.

In Europe, on the other hand, post-war motorcycle producers were more concerned with designing practical, economical transportation than the social aspects, or "biker" image. Italian designer Piaggio introduced the Vespa in 1946, which experienced immediate and widespread popularity. Imports from the UK, Italy and Germany, thus found a niche in U.S. markets that American bikes did not fill.

The BSA Group purchased Triumph Motorcycles in 1951 to become the largest producer of motorcycles in the world claiming "one in four". The German NSU was the largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s when Honda became the largest manufacturer title now claimed by Indian bike firm Hero Honda, which specialises in small motorcycles throughout India and similar markets.

A 1962 Triumph Bonneville represents the popularity of British motorcycles at that time

British manufacturers Triumph, BSA, and Norton retained a dominant position in some markets until the rise of the Japanese manufacturers (led by Honda) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The role of the motorcycle shifted in the 1960s, from the tool of a life to a toy of a lifestyle. It became part of an image, of status, a cultural icon for individualism, a prop in Hollywood B-movies.

The motorcycle also became a recreational machine for sport and leisure, a vehicle for carefree youth, not essential transportation for the mature family man or woman, and the Japanese were able to produce modern designs more quickly, more cheaply, and of better quality than their competitors. Their motorbikes were more stylish and more reliable, so the British manufacturers fell behind as mass-market producers.

The Honda Motor Co., which was officially founded in Japan on September 24, 1948, introduced their SOHC inline 4-cylinder 750 in 1969, which was inexpensive and immediately successful. It was not a high-performance bike, but it established the across-the-frame-4 engine configuration as a design with huge potential for power and performance. Despite being much more complex than any other mass-market motorcycle, it was the most reliable large motorcycle on the road.[citation needed]

Shortly after the introduction of the SOHC, Kawasaki demonstrated the potential of the four-cycle four-cylinder engine with the introduction of the KZ900. The only motorcycle that outperformed the KZ900 was another Kawasaki, the H1, a much smaller and lighter 3-cylinder, two-cycle engine.[citation needed] The H1 was prone to fouling, and was considered dangerous by many riders.[citation needed]

The Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd., Kawasaki Heavy Industries and the Yamaha Motor Corporation each started producing motorcycles in the 1950s. Meanwhile, the sun was setting on British dominion over the big-displacement motorbike market.

Japanese dominance

The Honda CB750 revolutionized motorcycle marketing and was emblematic of Japanese dominance

The excellence of Japanese motorcycles caused similar effects in all "Western" markets: many Italian bike firms either went bust or only just managed to survive. As a result BMW's worldwide sales sagged in the 1960s, but came back strongly with the introduction of a completely redesigned "slash-5" series for model year 1970.

From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of the East German Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s, later acquired by Suzuki via stolen plans supplied by MZ rider Ernst Degner, who defected to the West on 13th September 1961 after retiring from the 125cc Swedish Grand Prix at Kristianstad.

Harley-Davidson (HD) in the U.S. at the time suffered from the same problems as the European firms, but its unique product range, American tariff laws and nationalism-driven customer loyalty allowed it to survive. One alleged flaw, however, was retaining the characteristic HD 45 engine vee-angle, which causes excess vibration as well as the loping HD sound.

A factory full fairing was introduced by BMW motorcycles in the R100RS of 1977, the first factory fairing produced in quantity. In 1980, BMW stimulated the "adventure touring" category of motorcycling with its R80G/S. In 1988, BMW was the first motorcycle manufacturer to introduce anti-lock-brakes (ABS) on its sporting K100RS-SE and K1 models.

The present

A 2004 Kawasaki ZX-7RR

Today the Japanese manufacturers, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha dominate the large motorcycle industry, although Harley-Davidson still maintains a high degree of popularity, particularly in the United States.

Recent years have seen a resurgence in the popularity around the world of many other motorcycle brands, including BMW, Triumph and Ducati, and the emergence of Victory as a second successful mass-builder of big-twin American cruisers.

In November 2006, the Dutch company E.V.A. Products BV Holland announced that the first commercially available diesel-powered motorcycle, its Track T-800CDI, achieved production status. The Track T-800CDI uses a 800 cc three-cylinder Daimler Chrysler diesel engine. However, other manufacturers, including Royal Enfield, had been producing diesel-powered bikes since at least 1965.

Motorcycle traffic in Bangkok

Currently, the largest motorcycle market is the small machines market for the developing world, hence the claim from Indian Hero Honda to be the world's new biggest bike firm. India has also been the home to the Enfield Cycle Company's Royal Enfield, since 1995. Enfield India still makes updated versions of the 1955 Royal Enfield Bullet motorcycle.

There is a large demand for small, cheap motorcycles in the "developing world", and many of the firms meeting that demand now also compete in "developed" markets, such as China's Hongdou which makes a version of Honda's venerable CG 125.

Motorcycle taxis are the developing world's limousines. Scooters, mopeds and motorcycles offer a fast, cheap and risky way around snarled traffic and scarce mass transit, as they can easily squeeze through jams.

See also


Motorcycle manufacturers


Police motorcycle

Safety bicycle

Further reading

Early history and use in the United Kingdom

Pennell, Joseph (February 8 1901). "Some Experiences Of Motor Bicycles". Journal Of The Society Of Arts XLIX (2,516). Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (1902). The Automobile: A Practical Treatise On The Construction Of Modern Motor Cars Steam, Petrol, Electric And Petrol-Electric: Chapter XXI. Motor Bicycles (1903 ed.). London: Cassell And Company, Limited. pp. 751763. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Lavergne, Gerard (1902). The Automobile: Its Construction And Management (Various Chapters). London: Cassell And Company, Limited. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Wilson, A. J. (1903). Motor Cycles And How To Manage Them, 6th ed.. London: Iliffe & Sons Limited. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Early history and use in the United States

Lockert, Louis (1899). Petroleum Motor-Cars: Chapter VIII "Motor Bicycles". New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. pp. 6475. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

"The Automobile Bicycle". The Literary Digest XIX (16): 463464. October 14 1899. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (1900). Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles, Motor Cycles Operated By Steam, Petrol, Electric And Petrol-Electric: Chapter XI. Automobile Bicycles And Tricycles. New York: Munn & COmpany. pp. 175215. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

"Interesting Notes. Single Motor Bicycles". The School Journal LX (22): 632. June 2 1900. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Krarup, M.C. (November 1900). The Field For Motorcycles: Motorcycling Vs. Motoring. XXXVII. pp. 207212. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Bill, L. H. (August 1902). "The Poor Man's Automobile". Overland Monthly, And Out West Magazine XL (2): 197198. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Burr, H. Walter (December 1902). Up Mount Hamilton On A Motor Cycle. XL. pp. 556561. 

"Possibilities of the Motorcycle". The Automobile XIII (4): 123. July 27 1903. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (1904). Mechanical Appliances, Mechanical Movements And Novelties Of Construction: Road And Vehicle Devices, Types Of Motor Bicycles. New York: The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company. pp. 215216. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

"Motor Bicycles for Medical Men". The Medical World XXIII (10). October 1905. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Cummings, C. E. (February 1906). "An Idyl Of The Tireless Bike". Recreation XXIV (2): 127130. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

Bashore, S. D. (July 1906). "The Motor Cycle For Physicians". The Texas State Journal of Medicine II (3): 9293. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 

"Mail Collection By Motor Van". The Commercial Vehicle III (7). July 1908. Retrieved 2009-08-15. "An experiment is being conducted by the Post-office ... with the use of a motorcycle van ... of the "Indian" type". 

"Development Of The Motor Cycle Van: Increasing Use Of This Type Of Light Package Delivery Motor Vehicle Noted Both Here And Abroad". The Commercial Vehicle III (10): 227228. October 1908.;=RA1-PA227. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 


^ a b "The Past - 1800s: First motorcycle". The History and Future of Motorcycles and motorcycling - From 1885 to the Future, Total Motorcycle Website. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ Daimler, Paul (December 1901). "The Development Of The Petroleum Automobile". Engineering Magazine XXII (3): 350. Retrieved 2009-08-15. "Illustration "The Original Daimler Motorcycle"". 

^ a b c Ian Chadwick (June 30, 2001). "An overview of the British motorcycle industry and its collapse". British Motorcycle Manufacturers. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ "Brief History of the Marque: Hildebrand & Wolfmuller"., European Motorcycle Universe. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ "Theatrical Gossip" (PDF). The New York Times. 25 November 1895. Retrieved 2007-11-07. 

^ Harley-Davidson: At the Creation

^ "Our History". Berkeley Police Department Online, City of Berkeley, CA. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ a b "HD History: Timeline - 1930s". Harley-Davidson USA (2001-2007 H-D).!-74508550!1457951189&locale=en_US. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ "Post 1953 Indian Motorcycle History". Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ "British Motorcycles of the 1930s"., webWorld International, LLC (2001-2007). Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ a b "Freedom and Postwar Mobility: 1946-1958". The Art of the Motorcycle, Guggenheim Museum. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 

^ Bill Stermer (January/February 2008). "1977 BMW R100RS". Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 

^ "The first commercially-available diesel motorcycle". (November 20, 2006). Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ "Diesel motorbikes". Journey to Forever. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ "Hongdou Group: Manufacturer & Exporter . . .". International Department, Hongdou Motorcycle Co. Ltd. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ Daniel Michaels. "Two-Wheel Taxis Tap Upscale Market in Paris". Startup Journal - Enterprise, The Wall Street Journal - Center for Entrepreneurs (2007 Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

External links

The Art of the Motorcycle at the Orlando Museum of Art.

The Future of Motorcycles - An Opinion - Before the future, we have to understand the past.

Categories: Motorcycles | Motorcycling | History of technologyHidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2009 | All articles lacking in-text citations | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2008

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